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日本海洋政策学会の第7回年次大会に向けてー島嶼国違法操業の現実 [2015年10月31日(Sat)]
EEZ全面海洋保護区が制定されたパラオの海域で何か起っているか?

皮肉な事にこの法案に反応した水産庁が派遣した取締船「みはま」がパラオEEZ内の異常な状況を発見してしまったのである。
パラオにはEEZまで航海できる取締船は豪州が供与した監視艇が一隻あるだけだ。(これもそれほど遠くまでは行けない)
しかも、豪州元防衛大臣がカヌーも作れないと批判した豪州造船業界が作った船はよく故障するらしい。(この防衛大臣は更迭された)
予算がない島嶼国政府は燃料代、人件費も払えず年間稼働日が30日なんて年もあった。しかも取り締まるのはFFAやUSCGがVMSで確認した漁船だけ。即ち登録し入漁料を払っている漁船だけ。
パラオの新しい海洋保護区の法案はこれらの正当な漁船の活動を禁止するが、今まで取り締まって来なかった本当のIUUは野放し状態となる。

日本海洋政策学会で発表するので資料提供を水産庁に依頼した所下記の写真をいただいた。
こういう違法漁船、漁具がうじゃうじゃいるんです。パラオのEEZには。
これを水産庁の取締船派遣で現地法執行官を乗船させて対処しようとしているのをストップしているのが日本の外務省の国際法局と法務省なんだそうである。
あんまり書くと水産庁に怒られそうなのでここまでにしておきます。

ちなみにパラオの海洋警察はこの水産庁の提案を大歓迎している。
船の管理も燃料費も、運営も必要ないからだ。
しかも日本の違法操業取締専門家から取締に関する専門知識を伝授してもらえる。
彼ら自分たちのEEZをまだ見た事もないのだ。そしてこれは違法操業取締の経験がない豪州海軍、米国沿岸警備隊やPACOMには支援できる内容ではないのだ。

名称未設定 6.png名称未設定 5.png名称未設定 4.png名称未設定 3.png名称未設定 2.png名称未設定.png
捕鯨問題 科学と裁判所の関係 [2015年10月31日(Sat)]
太平洋を渡り歩いていると、特に海洋問題をやっていると「捕鯨」の問題は避けて通れない。
それで、わからないなりに時々フォローしている。

下記のニュースが出てTWを少し賑わしているようだが、その内容が大いに疑問なのだ。


捕鯨訴訟、国際司法裁判所で応じず…政府通告
2015年10月28日 Yomiuri Online
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20151028-OYT1T50099.html

国際司法裁判所で行われた捕鯨裁判を当方もできる限り見ていた。
素人なりの感覚では、この裁判のハイライトはその道の専門家でない裁判官が「科学」的かそうでないかを判断したところにある、と思っていた。
よって、今回日本政府が、より専門的な国際海洋法裁判所に委ねると言う判断は良識の範囲と受け止めている。

しかし、捕鯨問題専門家の石井敦準教授から「これは裁判所に科学者が参加できるか否かの話ですので、裁判官が科学を判断することの是非の話ではありません。」とのご教示をいただき、自分の無知蒙昧を恥じているところである。

他方、裁判が科学を扱う事の問題点を指摘したペーパーを見つけた。捕鯨専門家の石井敦准教授もご存知なかった、という。

Gogarty, Brendan; Lawrence, Peter --- "The ICJ Whaling Case: science, transparency and the rule of law" [2015] JlLawInfoSci 7; (2014/2015) 23(2) Journal of Law, Information and Science 134

同じタスマニア大学のBrendan Gogarty博士の論文

Japan’s whaling gambit shows it’s time to strengthen the rule of science in law
October 21, 2015
http://theconversation.com/japans-whaling-gambit-shows-its-time-to-strengthen-the-rule-of-science-in-law-49488

科学がglobal commonsについて裁判所で判断する材料になるのであれば法的なtractionが科学に与えられるべきである、という内容。(ここの部分は筆者の皮肉か本気かはわからない。)
科学と裁判の話は捕鯨に限った話ではなく、気候変動で世界の半分の二酸化炭素を排出している米中印のうち、米中はICJの管轄を適応しないとしているし、豪州自身も東チモールの石油問題(これは科学といより領土問題だと思うが)で2002年にICJの管轄を拒否している、のだそうだ。。
オーストラリアにも捕鯨問題を理論的に語れる人がいるというのは嬉しい発見である。


日本海洋政策学会の第7回年次大会に向けてーメガ海洋保護区は何のため? [2015年10月28日(Wed)]
日本海洋政策学会の第7回年次大会での発表には、島嶼国の海洋管理に対する法執行の限界をいくつかの点から指摘したい、と考えている。

その一つが多分、今日10月28日に大統領が署名するであろうパラオの海洋保護区制定である。
たった20名強しかいない小国の海洋警察が、60万平方キロメートルもあるEEZを監視できるわけがなく、海洋学者Gregory Stoneがキリバスのフェニックス諸島で発案したメガ海洋保護区の制定をパラオEEZ 全域に対して行う事をいよいよ議会が承認してしまったのだ。
この海洋保護区のミソはこの保護区を支援するという名目で設置される信託基金である。

先週から出ているニュースには、パラオのレメンゲサウ大統領よりも世界のセレブを駆出してこの案を強引に進めたPEWの方がはしゃいでいる様子が見え見えである。


どうにも頭に来て、思わず、水産庁関係者にメッセージを送った件がある。
PEWがいかにも自分たちの手柄のようにプロパガンダに使用しているベトナムの違法操業船をパラオ警察が燃やしている映像だ。
PEWは何もしていない。

この違法漁船を発見したのは水産庁が昨年パラオに派遣した取締船「みはま」である。
この違法漁船を拿捕したのが、日本財団が供与した三隻の取締船である。
PEWに、世界の金融組織に、日本はいいように利用されてしまったのだ。
PEWや世界の金持ちは、世界の水産業や島嶼国の未来なんか一切関心がない。
PEWとそれを取り巻くメディアは、海洋保護区と反日・反水産業をセットにして、ミクロネシアの人々を、国際世論をうまく丸め込んだのだ。
南京大虐殺、慰安婦問題と全く同じ構図である。

世界の水産業は日本が背負っている。日本が一番の消費者だ。
日本の無策は我々に跳ね返ってくるのである。
そしてこの無策を主導しているのが、信じられない事に我が国の外務省と法務省である事も学会発表で触れない訳にはいかない。
日本海洋政策学会の第7回年次大会に向けてーThe Emergence of a Regional Ocean Regime in the South Pacific その2 [2015年10月25日(Sun)]
前回ご紹介したBiliana Cicin-Sainさんの下記のペーパーをパワーポイントにすべく表にまとめてみた。

Biliana Cicin-Sain and Robert W. Knecht, The Emergence of a Regional Ocean Regime in the South Pacific, 16 Ecology L.Q. (1989). Available at: http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/elq/vol16/iss1/8

PICOceanRegime.png
クリックすると拡大します。


Cicin-Sainさんは、第3次国連海洋会議の時期と太平洋島嶼国が次々と独立時期が重なり、その独立国、特にフィジーが同会議でイニシアチブを取っていた事を指摘している。
そして同時期、南太平洋非核条約、漁業交渉、そしてUNEPを中心とした海洋環境保護活動も活発化し、太平洋のオーシャンレジームが形成されたと論を展開する。
時は冷戦真っ盛りである。この期間、日本は水産庁を中心にこのオーシャンレジーム形成に関わるようなのだ。ウェッブで資料を探したところ、水産庁の白書が一番詳しい。
UNCLOS採択1982年に先駆け、1977年1978年に数十カ国が200カイリを制定してしまう。

ところで、第3次国連海洋会議の時期、即ち70年代はカリブの英領も次々と独立を果たす。この背景にあるのは英国のタックスヘブン制度作りがあるのだ。即ち、タックスヘブンという世界金融レジームと海洋レジームは最初から繋がっていた、という事だ。
学会からは既に研究内容の焦点が定まっていない、との指摘をいただいておりこの点には触れないと思うが、現在のメガ海洋保護区が信託基金設置の隠れ蓑である事を知れば、興味深い接点である。
日本海洋政策学会の第7回年次大会に向けてーパラオと日本のEEZ [2015年10月24日(Sat)]
やはり学会発表を控えると気合いが入る。
以前より作成してみたいと思っていた、小島嶼国が広大なEEZを保有する意味を数字で表してみた。
日本とパラオだけだが、できれば米豪や他の島嶼国も作成してみたい。

その結果は下記の通り。


【人口一人当たりのEEZ】 パラオ31 km2 日本0.035 km2 パラオは日本の千倍

【EEZ 1 km2辺りのGDP】 パラオは400ドル 日本は百万ドル 日本はパラオの2,500倍

【海洋警察一人当たりのEEZ】 パラオは25,160km2 日本は343 km2 パラオは日本の73倍

PalauJapanEEZ.png
日本海洋政策学会の第7回年次大会に向けてーThe Emergence of a Regional Ocean Regime in the South Pacific [2015年10月21日(Wed)]
12月開催の日本海洋政策学会の第7回年次大会に応募した研究テーマが審査を通過したとの連絡をいただき焦っている。
急遽笹川平和財団海洋政策学会研究所古川博士に連絡をして確認した。
私「何かの間違いではないでしょうか?応募研究件数が少なかったとか。。」
古川博士「そんな事はありません。複数の審査委員が公正に判断した結果です。」
私「私の発表の時は聴衆、せいぜい5、6人とかですよね。キット!」
古川博士「イヤ、例年2−300人は聴衆がいます。別に早川さんの研究を聞くためにいるのではなく、その前の開会式に集まった聴衆がそのまま残る形でいるんです。良い機会ですよ。」

古川博士は相変わらずやさしいのか、冷たいのかよくわからないハゼ研究者である。
先日ヴァイオリン発表会に臨む娘に「聴衆なんてカボチャだと思いなさい。」なんて言った手前もう後にはひけない。

それで以前から読もう読もうと思っていた、寺島常務のお知り合いでもあるBiliana Cicin-Sainのペーパーを手に取った。1989年25年以上前の、冷戦末期のペーパーだ。

Biliana Cicin-Sain and Robert W. Knecht, The Emergence of a Regional Ocean Regime in the South Pacific, 16 Ecology L.Q. (1989). Available at: http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/elq/vol16/iss1/8


太平洋島嶼国がEEZを獲得した背景が、独立運動、非核運動、環境運動、漁業資源管理、そして冷戦の背景と絡めて議論されている。面白い。。
1970年代の第三次国連海洋法会議(UNCLOS III)と島嶼国の独立は重なるのだ。そして豪州労働党とNZが主導した非核運動。。

審査委員会からは指摘を何点もいただいていて、議論の焦点が定まっていない、というのもあり、あまり散漫にならないように、と思いつつCicin-Sain博士の議論も触れないではいられない、と思っている。
これから、ウィルソンのself-detreminationをフルボッコしているマーガレット•マクミランのPeacemakerを読む予定。
パラオの海洋保護区法案下院を通過 [2015年10月16日(Fri)]
なんとパラオの海洋保護区法案が下院を通過してしまった。
上院も問題なく通過し、来週には大統領のサインがもらえる、という話だ。
ウーーンと唸るしかない。。

「そんなの帝国主義だー、植民地主義だー」と羽生会長から吊るし上げにあった時、当方も黙ってはいなかった。
「それでは、中国のカジノがパラオに来てもいいんですか?プロパンガンダ組織PEWと同じレベルに成り下がっていいですか?」と弱々しく応酬した。
今日のパラオのニュースにはカジノ法案が復活というのもあった。
再び、ウーーンと唸るしかない。。


Senate passes National Marine Sanctuary bill
WRITTEN BY JOSE RODRIGUEZ T. SENASE
Island Times
THURSDAY, 15 OCTOBER 2015 16:55
Measure goes to HOD
The Palau Senate has finally passed the proposal to create the Palau National Marine Sanctuary (PNMS).
All ten senators present during the Senate session yesterday voted to approve the measure in the third and final reading.
Those who voted for the PNMS proposal, which is also known as Senate Bill No. 9-30, were Senate President Camsek Chin, and Senators Hokkons Baules, Surangel Whipps, Jr., Mason Whipps, Regis Akitaya, J. Uduch Sengebau-Senior, Rukebai Inabo, Raynold Oilouch, Phillip Reklai, and Mark Rudimch.
Senators Mlib Tmetuchl and Joel Toribiong are reportedly off-island and were not present during the voting, while Senate Vice President Kathy Kesolei recently passed away.
A press release from the Office of the President said Pres. Remengesau was elated by the passage of the measure, which has been one of his priorities.
"I commend our Senators for advancing this important piece of legislation and look forward to working with the House on swift passage," said President Thomas E. Remengesau, Jr. "The Palau National Marine Sanctuary is more than a conservation proposal, it is critical for our nation's food, economic, and national security,” he stated.
The Palau National Marine Sanctuary will transform the nation's waters into two distinct areas. After a five-year transition period, 80 percent of the country’s exclusive economic zone(EEZ) totaling 500,000 square kilometers (193,000 square miles) will become a fully protected marine reserve where all extractive activities will be prohibited. The remaining 20 percent will become a fishing zone for Palau’s domestic market with limited foreign fishing and exports.
"This is an important breakthrough," said Seth Horstmeyer, a director with The Pew Charitable Trusts’ Global Ocean Legacy project, which has provided technical assistance for the sanctuary proposal since 2014. "Upon full designation, the National Marine Sanctuary will benefit the people of Palau and the overall health of the ocean."
The measure was endorsed for passage by the Senate Committee on Resources and Development chaired by Senator Mason Whipps last year. But the measure was then re-assigned to Sen. Mlib Tmetuchl’s Committee on Maritime Environment and Protected Area (MEPA).
The measure then stalled at the MEPA Committee, with Sen. Tmetuchl saying that more time was needed to review it.
However, on Tuesday, October 13, 2015, upon motion of Sen. Baules, who was the author of the measure, the Whipps Committee Report endorsing the bill’s passage was recalled and voted out of the MEPA to the Senate floor for deliberation.
The approved bill includes provisions that will ensure that Palau will continue to receive revenues from the PNA’s Vessel Day Scheme.
It will also phase out foreign commercial long line fishing over a five year period, and then will require any locally owned long line catch to be landed in Palau for the domestic and tourism market.
The proposed law now moves to the HOD, where a companion bill was introduced in August 2015 by a majority of its members.
A member of the HOD said they will approve the Senate version with only minor changes.
“It could be in the President’s desk for his signature by next week,” he stated.
The measure has strong local and international support. Supporters include 15 of 16 state governors, all 16 state legislatures, Palau Chamber of Commerce, Belau Boaters Association, Palau Sports Fishing Association, Northern Reef Fisheries Alliance, Ocean Elders (comprised of many prominent international figures like Queen Noor of Jordan, Prince Albert of Monaco, CNN founder Ted Turner and others), National Geographic, Greenpeace, Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA), and heads of states of neighboring countries like Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Nauru, Kiribati, and Tuvalu.
Those who oppose the initiative are concerned of Palau’s ability to recoup the estimated $5 to $8 million the country receives every year by way of taxes and commercial licensing fees paid by local and foreign fishing companies.
日・パプアニューギニア首脳会談及び夕食会 [2015年10月15日(Thu)]
パプアニューギニアのオニール首相が来日し、天皇皇后両陛下にもお会いになる事をニュースで読み気になっていた。

パプアニューギニアは、笹川良一氏が、世界でただ一人、建国の父ソマレ閣下の要望を聞き入れ、独立の支援をした事で誕生した国である。革命家ソマレ青年は、普段(パプアニューギニアの資源を狙って?)コンタクトしてくる、米国やドイツの知人にも協力依頼の手紙を出したが、返事をくれたのは笹川会長だけだったそうだ。
そのパプアニューギニア、今年建国40周年を迎える。
同国に続きソロモン諸島、バヌアツが次々と独立を果たす。パプアニューギニアの独立はメラネシア諸国全体にも大きな影響を与えたのであろう。


下記官邸、外務省のウェッブからリンクしていおく。まだまだメディアに出て来る事と思う。

日本・パプアニューギニア外交関係樹立40周年記念 日本国総理大臣及びパプアニューギニア独立国首相による共同メッセージ 「友情,信頼及び相互努力の40年,そして未来へ」
http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/files/000104953.pdf


Joint Message by Prime Ministers of Japan and Papua New Guinea on the Occasion of the 40th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Diplomatic Relations - 40 Years of Friendship, Trust, Mutual Efforts and Toward the Future –
http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/files/000104954.pdf

日・パプアニューギニア首脳会談及び夕食会
http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/a_o/ocn/pg/page4_001461.html

平成27年10月14日
日・パプアニューギニア首脳会談等
http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/97_abe/actions/201510/14papua_new_guinea.html
米国の海洋政策の今 [2015年10月08日(Thu)]
昨年デカプリオとパラオのレメンゲサウ大統領を招いて米国が開催したOur Oceanという会議
今年はチリで10月5−6日開催。
米国からはケリー外相が出席。パラオからはベル副大統領が出席。

その席で米国の海洋政策の最新情報が発表された。
7項目があげられている。漁業がトップ項目である。
ー持続可能な漁業、
ー海洋保護区、
ー海洋汚染、
ー海洋の酸性化対策、
ー能力構築、
ー沿岸コミュニティ支援、
ー海洋の理解促進

下記にコピーする。リンク先はここ。
Updates on Commitments Made at Our Ocean 2014
http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2015/10/247858.htm

夫々の項目のついてその詳細も含め、吟味する必要があると思うが、漁業立国、海洋立国である日本、同盟国である日本との協力が一言も入っていないのが気になる。




Updates on Commitments Made at Our Ocean 2014


Fact Sheet
Office of the Spokesperson
Washington, DC
October 5, 2015

The inaugural Our Ocean conference in June 2014 generated ground-breaking commitments among international partners to promote sustainable fisheries, reduce marine pollution, and stem ocean acidification. The following are pledges made at the first conference and updates on progress made since then, as Our Ocean 2015 commences in Valparaiso, Chile.

Sustainable Fisheries

President Obama announced the creation of a new U.S. Taskforce on Combating Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing and Seafood Fraud. The Presidential Task Force unveiled its action plan in March, and implementation is underway including a new program to trace seafood from harvest anywhere in the world to entry into the United States, ensuring that the goods are sustainably and legally harvested.
Norway pledged more than $150 million to promote global fisheries development and management. These funds have been used to build a third research vessel to train fisheries experts and managers from around the world and to hold workshops for port authorities on how best to combat IUU fishing.
The United States, /tone, and the GSM Association launched the mFish public-private partnership to provide mobile devices and apps to small-scale fishers in developing countries, helping them access market and weather information and deliver reports on their catches. The technology was piloted in Indonesia and plans are underway to expand the program.
The United States and Palau announced a partnership to test the use of multiple remote surveillance technologies for detecting illegal fishing. The United States and Palau undertook a number of demonstration projects to expand maritime domain awareness (MDA) and increase the ability to track potential IUU fishing and trafficking activities. These projects included multiple remote surveillance technologies, information exchange and display tools, and capabilities to rapidly access commercial satellite data.
Foreign Minister Dussey of Togo announced a new agreement among Togo, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria to combat illegal fishing in the Gulf of Guinea. In March, the Economic Community of West African States inaugurated a multinational maritime coordination center to counter IUU fishing through information sharing and coordination of joint patrols, training, and drills.
Several governments committed to joining the Port State Measures Agreement, which aims to prevent illegally harvested fish from entering the stream of commerce. Three countries have joined since the 2014 conference, and at least 7 more are close to joining, getting us well over half way to the 25 parties needed to bring this ground-breaking treaty into force.


Marine Protected Areas

President Barack Obama announced a commitment to protect some of the most precious U.S. marine seascapes. In September 2014, the United States expanded the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument by almost six times to encompass 1.27 million square kilometers – making it the largest marine reserve in the world that is off limits to any commercial extraction, including commercial fishing.
President Anote Tong announced the decision of Kiribati to ban commercial fishing in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area. In January 2015, Kiribati made good on this commitment, protecting over 400,000 square kilometers of ocean, an area roughly the size of California.
President Remengesau unveiled the design for the proposed Palau National Marine Sanctuary. In October 2014, legislation was introduced in the Palau Senate and in August 2015, the Palau House announced a companion bill. The proposal is expected to advance in the next legislative session with full designation in 2016.
Leonardo DiCaprio pledged $7 million through his foundation to ocean conservation projects over the next two years. In 2015, the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation awarded over $4 million to new ocean conservation projects around the globe, working with key partners to create new large-scale marine reserves in the South Pacific, Indian Ocean, and the remote waters of the Arctic and Antarctica. The LDF is also supporting initiatives to stop the trade and overfishing of endangered shark species, and working with several partners in Indonesia and Somalia to help local communities protect their coastal waters.
Elizabeth Wright-Koteka and Kevin Iro of the Cook Islands announced plans to expand marine reserves around their country. Legislation to create the Cook Islands Marine Park is under development.
Sir David King of the United Kingdom announced a public process to consider the establishment of a marine conservation zone covering most of the exclusive economic zone around the Pitcairn Islands – an area in the Pacific Ocean covering more than three times the size of the UK. Earlier this year, the UK announced its intention to protect the marine environment with a “blue belt” to safeguard these precious marine habitats, both around the UK and the Territories overseas. The UK also announced its intention to establish a large-scale, no-take MPA around Pitcairn Island, once an effective monitoring and enforcement regime can be established and funded.
Minister Kenred Dorsett of the Bahamas announced additional MPAs to be created by the end of 2014, bringing the nation’s existing network of marine protected areas to at least 10 percent of its near-shore marine environment. In 2015, the Bahamas designated 15 new and 3 expanded MPAs to bring an additional 44,514 square kilometers of the marine environment under protection.


Marine Pollution

The United States announced the Trash Free Waters program to stop refuse and debris from entering the ocean through sustainable product design, increased material recovery, and a new nationwide trash prevention campaign. The program, operated by the Environmental Protection Agency, partnered with regional entities to develop strategies for five major coastal regions and over 10 cities, and it worked with business leaders to alter products, practices, and consumer behaviors to prevent future loadings of trash into the ocean.
Daniella Russo announced the Think Beyond Plasticトレードマーク(TM) Innovation Forum to advance entrepreneurship and to inspire innovations to reduce global plastic pollution. The program has grown significantly, launching its first business accelerator class and working on a project to eliminate marine plastics in the Mesoamerican Reef.
Norway pledged $1 million for a study on measures to combat marine plastic waste. Norway funded a study through the Global Partnership on Marine Litter on the sources and effects of microplastics in the environment.


Ocean Acidification

Norway announced the allocation in 2015 of over $1 billion to climate change mitigation and adaptation assistance. In the past year, the nation has given more than $250 million to the Green Climate Fund.
The United States announced an investment of more than $9 million over three years to sustain acidification observing capabilities, and a contribution of $640,000 to the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Center (OA-ICC) in Monaco. The United States has invested nearly $6 million in the past two years to monitor ocean acidification and develop new sensor technologies, and has allocated the $640,000 pledge through the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Peaceful Uses Initiative to the OA-ICC.
The United States announced new projects totaling $1.24 million to meet challenges of ocean acidification and marine pollution in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The United States has allocated this pledge to the IAEA through the Peaceful Uses Initiative and projects are getting underway.
The United States announced new funding for a joint initiative with Canada and Mexico to catalogue North American coastal habitats that capture and hold carbon and to evaluate the possible use of carbon credits to protect these habitats. In its first phase, the project has produced detailed maps of these habitats in all three countries, aiding future research and management efforts.
In 2014, the Ocean Foundation announced the Friends of the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network, a new fund to support the network. Funds raised by the foundation will be used to support a capacity-building workshop in Mozambique on ocean acidification monitoring.


Building Capacity

The Global Environment Facility announced funding of $460 million over four years to conserve and restore marine biodiversity, foster sustainable fisheries, and strengthen coastal management. The GEF has approved three marine-focused projects worth $52.9 million and six projects in total valued at $76.3 million.
The World Bank highlighted a new $10 million World Bank / Global Environment Facility investment that would improve management of tuna fisheries and other highly migratory fish stocks in the developing world. The project was approved by the World Bank board in September of 2014 and is expected to be in implementation until 2018.


Supporting Coastal Communities

The U.S. Agency for International Development announced new coastal programs valued at more than $170 million. Since the conference, USAID has awarded programs worth more than $135 million to promote ocean health, food security, nutrition, and human well-being by helping governments and communities improve fisheries management, combat illegal fishing and wildlife trafficking, strengthen MPA management, and conserve critical coastal habitats.
The Waitt Foundation announced the Fish Forever program to promote sustainable fisheries management. The program, a partnership with Rare, the Environmental Defense Fund, and the Sustainable Fisheries Group at the University of California Santa Barbara, now has operations at more than 40 sites across Belize, Brazil, Indonesia, The Philippines, and Mozambique.


Mapping and Understanding the Ocean

The United States announced the activation of two new research vessels, providing a new generation of scientists with cutting-edge technology to explore the ocean. The Office of Naval Research took delivery of the R/V Neil Armstrong in September, and the ship is expected to begin research operations under the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution next year, while the R/V Sally Ride, to be operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, is expected to enter service in late 2016.
The Nature Conservancy announced a three-year effort to Map the Ocean’s Wealth, with a $3.8 million lead investment from the Lyda Hill Foundation, to quantify and map key ecosystem services that the ocean provides. As a result of this project, new ocean wealth data is being used to inform economic development and conservation in five critically important seascapes around the world, and TNC has launched oceanwealth.org to make this information available broadly.
The Waitt Institute announced an initiative to help Caribbean nations undertake ocean zoning and sustainable management of fisheries. Since last year’s conference, the Blue Halo Initiative has expanded to Montserrat and Curaçao, supporting those island’s governments and communities as they envision, design, and implement comprehensive ocean policies.
For further information, please visit www.state.gov/ourocean.
A Twenty-five year journey into telecommunications in the Pacific Islands [2015年10月07日(Wed)]
太平洋島嶼国の仕事をして25年になる。
別に陰徳の美とかで隠している訳ではないのだが、自分の業績を言っても「あなたにそんな事ができるわけない」とか「あなたがそんな事をしてはいけない」とか言われる事がある。
自慢したい業績の一つが情報通信分野だ。USPNetを日本のODA案件にした。
英語でまとめてみた。

本件を判断し指示したのは笹川陽平会長(当時の島嶼国基金運営委員長)である。
現場で動いたのは自分である。途方もない仕事をさせていただく機会をいただき感謝しています。
しかし、この事をJICAや外務省の人に言っても鼻でせせら笑うだけなのだ。
今日本のODAでUSPNetを中心にICT支援ができている背景には笹川太平洋島嶼国基金が利害調整やら何やら、外務省やJICAにはできない芸当をしたからです。。
まあ、でも25年の道のりは長い。。

A Twenty-five year journey into telecommunications in the Pacific Islands

My twenty-five year journey into telecommunications in the Pacific Islands begun in April 1991 when I joined the Sasakawa Peace Foundation (Non-profit organzation in Japan) and was in charge of the Sasakawa Pacific Island Nations Fund. My predecessor left the foundation a few weeks before I arrived, and there were many ongoing projects. One of them was “USPNet upgrade proposal” (USP for University of the South Pacific). USPNet is the distance education network of USP and its 12 member countries from the South Pacific. (I will discuss this in detail in Chapter 6) from the University of South Pacific. A few months later we received another proposal from the University of Hawaii, “Policy Conference of PEACESAT” (This will also be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 6. PEACESAT stands for Pan-Pacific Education and Communication Experiments by Satellite).

My twenty-five year journey into telecommunications in the Pacific Islands, begun with study on both USPNet and PEACESAT, at that time I had only Master Degree on Education.
In 1992 I recommended to the board of committee of the Fund to provide a grant of a quarter of a million US dollars for a PEACESAT conference as the University of Hawaii requested. The Japanese government wanted to join this conference because at that time they had a satellite experiment project plan called “PARTNERS”. The Ministry of Post, who were in charge of national satellite and space research, also funded the conference almost the same amount of our grant. Thus with almost a half million US dollars budget, nearly 300 Pacific Islands educators and leaders gathered at Sendai, Tohoku, Japan (25-29 February, 1992), to discuss the policy of PEACESAT which had just re-started with a new second hand free satellite from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It was my first experience, and a shocking one, to witness the desperate need of telecommunication services in the Pacific Islands.

In 1993, after I studied on both USPNet and PEACSAT about one year and undersatood complexity of policies, politics, technologies, budget, and contents of dveloping distance eduction project, I launched the Distance Education Development Study for the Pacific Region within the Sasakawa Peace Foundation bringing together experts from Japan to evaluating and supporting the improvement of the USPNet proposal. After this study, under the direction of Mr Yohei Sasakawa, Chair of the board of commiittee of the Sasakawa Pacific Island Nations Fund at that time, I made the USPNet a Japanese ODA project. This project became as the main support measure of the first Pacific Islands Leaders Summit hosted by Japanese Government in 1997. I also launched the project to publish a book with key personnel from USPNet and PEACESAT as authors. “Distance Education in the South Pacific: Nets and Voyages” was published in 2000 from USP (Guy, Kosuge and Hayakawa 2000).

During my first seven years studying and supporting both USPNet and PEACESAT, I obtained a lot of information and knowledge. Also, I never read papers which discussed the politics and policies for developing telecommunications and distance education projects, but I read almost all papers that discussed satellite technologies and possible contents for distance education networks. However, at that time I already had a strong confidence through my experience to work with various stakeholders, that politics and policies are the keys for telecommunication development, rather than technologies, budget and other elements.

After the USPNet upgrade proposal became international ODA project of Japan, New Zealand and Australian governments, I wanted to summarise what I had done and found, then ascertain what I had to do in the next step by studying with international relations (political science) as an academic perspective.

In 1997, I started my second Masters study at Aoyama Gakuin University under the supervision of Professor Akio Watanabe. I argued that politics and policies are heavily entangling telecommunication development. This involved not only local politics but also high politics, such as the cold war background with satellite development and international politics. My Masters thesis tried to focus on these political discussions. In 1999, I finished my thesis which included the recommendation on Japan - United States cooperation for the telecommunication development of the Micronesian region in areas not covered by the University of South Pacific. That is, those areas where the people of Micronesia did not have access to higher education from their home countries.
In 2000, Japan hosted two events: in April the second Pacific Island Leaders Summit, and in July the G8 summit, both in Okinawa-Kyushu. Mr Sasakawa was asked by the late Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi to advice for the second Pacific Islands Leader Summit which was linked to the G8. One of the G8 summit outcomes was the IT Support Scheme with a budget of 15 billion USD (Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society 2000). The Pacific Islands Leader Summit also agreed to Implement the Pacific IT Promotion Projects (Pacific Common Frontiers Initiative
 Miyazaki Initiative 2000).
The Sasakawa Peace Foundation tried to support a proposal to the Japanese Government for the Distance Education in Micronesia which was developed by three Micronesian countries: Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of Marshall Islands. However, the Japanese government declined the proposal. I found that the Japanese government, and more specifically the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, could not understand the need of the Micronesia, especially about the policies and political issues behind the telecommunication development. In 2002 I launched the study committee, ‘Pacific Islands Digital Opportunity Committee’, under a Board of Committee of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation. This committee studied ICT for development (ICT4D) with a wide perspective, especially on policy issues. This committee also tried to support policy reform, especially in Micronesia. As the result there has been policy discussions such as discussion papers from the Republic of Palau under the initiative of Hon Sandra Perantozzi, the first woman Vice President of the Republic of Palau (2001-2004). The Federated States of Micronesia finally announced their ICT policy in 2014 with initiative of Hon. Francis Itimai, Secretary for Transportation, Communications, and Infrastructure of the Federated States of Micronesia, and passed their telecommunication deregulation bill in the same year.
Recently, towards the end of my thesis writing, the Republic of Palau needed to deregulated their telecommunication bill in order to get access to an Asia Development Bank loan to connect the international undersea telecommunications cable project. I provided intellectual advice on such as deregulation, meaning of Universal Service, with request from the Palauan public, based on my thesis research. As the result Palau government approved the new telecommunication bill which introduced deregulation and competition in their telecommunication service regime, on the 21st September 2015.
When I started my PhD in 2008, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation had a new Chairman and the Pacific Island Nations Fund changed its focus from ICT to maritime security projects. However, telecommunication is always a key component of security, so I could still keep touch with ICT issues in the Pacific within the capacity of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation as well. It is a great opportunity for this study to keep up the current discussions and movement in the development of telecommunication in the Pacific Islands.