(The first draft 27 February 2012)
Space Development and Decolonization (Post colonization)
It is reasonable to start with “Maitland Report” to describe the historical background of Information Communication and Technology for Development - ICT4D. The “Maitland Report” was released on 1985 from ITU as the first comprehensive study on ICT4D. However, I would like to summarize events from a few decades before which led to the “Maitland Report”
The events begin in the mid to late 1950s with the Bandung Conference (1955) and the Sputnik Shock (1957) - in other words: decolonization and space development under cold war. These two events and movement showed us that space development and decolonization (post colonization) were synchronized for ICT4D. One of these movements was a demand from newly independent countries for their equal right for new space territory which at that time was a new territory for nation states. The other movements was a demand from two hegemonies – the US and Soviet Union, who both wanted to develop space technologies for their power struggle as well as obtaining newly independent countries for their political allies.
1. Synchronized events - Bandung Conference and Sputnik Shock
After the second world war decolonization was accelerated. A major symbolic event was held in Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955. Twenty-nine decolonized countries from both Asia and Africa gathered and agreed to a ten-point "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation"
Following this first conference of non-allied countries, the Soviet Union in 1957 was successful in launching the space rocket Sputnik. This action raised tensions of the cold war. Non-allied newly independent countries who gathered at the Bandung Conference were dragged into the respective camps of the two hegemony powers. As result, these Asian and African countries who had participated at this conference did not meet again until 2005.
After competition between the US and Soviet Union began in 1957, one year later in 1958 the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was launched provisionally, and then was formally established as a UN resolution in 1959. The ITU – International Telecommunication Union, which was established in 1865 and is the oldest international organization in existence, agreed to provide technical support for developing countries in 1959. This could be the first activity of ICT4D.
In 1961, John F. Kennedy, US President, made a historical speech before the UN General assembly which included the proposal for the peaceful space development and global system of communications satellites linking the whole world by telegraph and telephone and radio and television. This speech led to the establishment in 1964 of INTELSAT – international satellite service organization. In the same year, the Soviet Union also established INTERSUPTNIK. Opportunities existed for the newly developed third world countries to access these satellite information systems, yet again they were divided into the US and Soviet Union hegemonies.
In 1965, the UNDP was established and development for these newly independent nations were strengthened and as well as space development was reinforced. As the result, in 1969, humanity made its first steps on the moon – just as President Kennedy had promised in his 1961 speech.
2. Neglected voices – “Many Voices One World” and “Bogota Declaration”
Was Space development successful for “peaceful space development and global system of communications satellites linking the whole world”? The answer was NO.
The divide of wealth between developed and developing countries was further widened in the 60s and 70s. ICT was no exception. Studies in both Media and Communication showed that the flow of mass media information between developed and developing countries was obvious and that this situation worsened the divide and put up obstacles for development.
In 1969, UNESCO spoke about the “New World Information and Communication Order” and in 1977 launched the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems asking the Nobel Peace Prize activist Seán MacBride to take the lead. In 1980 this committee released a report titled “Many Voices One World” or as it was well known as the “MacBride Report”. The report was condemned by both the United States and United Kingdom as it was thought to have been against freedom of expression.
In 1976 there was another voice from developing countries on ICT4D which was ignored by hegemony again. Eight countries from the worlds equatorial zone :Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Congo, Kenya, Uganda, and Zaire joined together at a conference and signed the Bogota Declaration. This Declaration made clear that the geostationary orbit arc above each country is the sovereign territory of that country. The declaration also stated that such sovereign rights are in the best interest of all countries and all mankind, not just the most developed countries. Following on from this it was also thought that the geostationary arc above the oceans were part of the common heritage of all mankind and should be exploited to the benefit of all mankind. Those countries that were developed in space exploration such as the United States, did not reply to these demands from developing countries, and continued to enjoy their monopolized space technology and powers not for the betterment of developed countries, but strengthening their own military-industrial complex.
It should be noted that more equatorial countries from around the world have made claims of ownership to their own overhead geostationary arcs.
In 1971 PEACESAT was started using second hand satellites from NASA. This was a free satellite service dedicated for Pacific Island peoples. Although this satellite was not initially developed for developing countries, the people who started PEACEAST (such as ex Peace Corp) had the philosophy to support ICT4D of developing countries.
After the Sputnik Shock, space development was the results of fierce competition between the two power hegemonies under the increasing tension of the cold war. The ICT environment was divided among the perspectives of information, communication and technologies. Two significant voices from the developing countries were ignored. This lead in turn to the ITU initiated “Maitland Report”.
This story tells us that satellite communication was developed as a result of the rancor between the demand for rights of space territory and technology from decolonized countries, and the demand of military-industrial complex of the worlds hegemonies led by the US and the Soviet Union, who used lip service towards the peaceful use of space and world benefit.
Chronicle of Space Development and Decolonization
1865 Est. ITU
1941 Atlantic Charter
1941 Four Freedoms (US)
1942 “Conditions of Peace” by E.H.Carr
1943 Draft Constitution of International Organization
1943 Cairo Declaration、Tehran Conference
1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization
1947 est. UNESCO
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1952 ITU commences its programme of technical cooperation
1955 Bandung Conference
1957 Sputnik Shock
1958 United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
1959 Role of ITU’s technical cooperation was mentioned in the International
1961 Address Before the General Assembly of the United Nations, by JFK
1961 Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space
1964 est. INTELSAT / INTERSPUTNIK
1965 est. UNDP
1967 Outer Space Treaty
1969 UNESCO “New World Information and Communication Order”
1971 PEACESAT start
1972 UNESCO Mass Media Declaration
1973 The first oil crisis
1976 Bogota Declaration
1976 UNESCO Mass Media Declaration
1977 UNESCO International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems
1979 The second oil crisis
1980 UNESCO MacBride Report
1982 ITU Plenipotentiary Conference at Nairobi
1983 ITU World Communication Year
1985 ITU Maitland Report
(John F Kennedy, Address Before the General Assembly of the United Nations, September 25, 1961)
As we extend the rule of law on earth, so must we also extend it to man's new domain--outer space.
All of us salute the brave cosmonauts of the Soviet Union. The new horizons of outer space must not be driven by the old bitter concepts of imperialism and sovereign claims. The cold reaches of the universe must not become the new arena of an even colder war.
To this end, we shall urge proposals extending the United Nations Charter to the limits of man's exploration of the universe, reserving outer space for peaceful use, prohibiting weapons of mass destruction in space or on celestial bodies, and opening the mysteries and benefits of space to every nation. We shall propose further cooperative efforts between all nations in weather prediction and eventually in weather control. We shall propose, finally, a global system of communications satellites linking the whole world in telegraph and telephone and radio and television. The day need not be far away when such a system will televise the proceedings of this body to every corner of the world for the benefit of peace.
Space Power Theory by Jim Oberghttp://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/space/books/oberg/
Historical background of International cooperation of ITUhttp://www.ituaj.jp/07_mc/itud/01_01_itu_d.html
World Communication Yearhttp://www.nict.go.jp/publication/CRL_News/back_number/086/086.htm
North-South Problem of ICT - Telecommunication White paper 1983, http://www.soumu.go.jp/johotsusintokei/whitepaper/ja/s58/html/s58a01020101.html
ITU Geneva Convention 1959
Final Protocol to the Convention Additional Protocols to the Convention Resolutions, Recommendations and Opinion
"art. 4.2.(d) foster the creation, development and improvement of telecommu- nication equipment and networks in new or developing countries by every means at its disposal, especially its participation in the appropriate programmes of the United Nations;"http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/oth/02/01/S020100001C4002PDFE.pdf
Lyall, Francis, "International Telecommunication Union and Development". 1994 J Space Law, 23-32