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A Twenty-five year journey into telecommunications in the Pacific Islands [2015年10月07日(Wed)]
太平洋島嶼国の仕事をして25年になる。
別に陰徳の美とかで隠している訳ではないのだが、自分の業績を言っても「あなたにそんな事ができるわけない」とか「あなたがそんな事をしてはいけない」とか言われる事がある。
自慢したい業績の一つが情報通信分野だ。USPNetを日本のODA案件にした。
英語でまとめてみた。

本件を判断し指示したのは笹川陽平会長(当時の島嶼国基金運営委員長)である。
現場で動いたのは自分である。途方もない仕事をさせていただく機会をいただき感謝しています。
しかし、この事をJICAや外務省の人に言っても鼻でせせら笑うだけなのだ。
今日本のODAでUSPNetを中心にICT支援ができている背景には笹川太平洋島嶼国基金が利害調整やら何やら、外務省やJICAにはできない芸当をしたからです。。
まあ、でも25年の道のりは長い。。

A Twenty-five year journey into telecommunications in the Pacific Islands

My twenty-five year journey into telecommunications in the Pacific Islands begun in April 1991 when I joined the Sasakawa Peace Foundation (Non-profit organzation in Japan) and was in charge of the Sasakawa Pacific Island Nations Fund. My predecessor left the foundation a few weeks before I arrived, and there were many ongoing projects. One of them was “USPNet upgrade proposal” (USP for University of the South Pacific). USPNet is the distance education network of USP and its 12 member countries from the South Pacific. (I will discuss this in detail in Chapter 6) from the University of South Pacific. A few months later we received another proposal from the University of Hawaii, “Policy Conference of PEACESAT” (This will also be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 6. PEACESAT stands for Pan-Pacific Education and Communication Experiments by Satellite).

My twenty-five year journey into telecommunications in the Pacific Islands, begun with study on both USPNet and PEACESAT, at that time I had only Master Degree on Education.
In 1992 I recommended to the board of committee of the Fund to provide a grant of a quarter of a million US dollars for a PEACESAT conference as the University of Hawaii requested. The Japanese government wanted to join this conference because at that time they had a satellite experiment project plan called “PARTNERS”. The Ministry of Post, who were in charge of national satellite and space research, also funded the conference almost the same amount of our grant. Thus with almost a half million US dollars budget, nearly 300 Pacific Islands educators and leaders gathered at Sendai, Tohoku, Japan (25-29 February, 1992), to discuss the policy of PEACESAT which had just re-started with a new second hand free satellite from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It was my first experience, and a shocking one, to witness the desperate need of telecommunication services in the Pacific Islands.

In 1993, after I studied on both USPNet and PEACSAT about one year and undersatood complexity of policies, politics, technologies, budget, and contents of dveloping distance eduction project, I launched the Distance Education Development Study for the Pacific Region within the Sasakawa Peace Foundation bringing together experts from Japan to evaluating and supporting the improvement of the USPNet proposal. After this study, under the direction of Mr Yohei Sasakawa, Chair of the board of commiittee of the Sasakawa Pacific Island Nations Fund at that time, I made the USPNet a Japanese ODA project. This project became as the main support measure of the first Pacific Islands Leaders Summit hosted by Japanese Government in 1997. I also launched the project to publish a book with key personnel from USPNet and PEACESAT as authors. “Distance Education in the South Pacific: Nets and Voyages” was published in 2000 from USP (Guy, Kosuge and Hayakawa 2000).

During my first seven years studying and supporting both USPNet and PEACESAT, I obtained a lot of information and knowledge. Also, I never read papers which discussed the politics and policies for developing telecommunications and distance education projects, but I read almost all papers that discussed satellite technologies and possible contents for distance education networks. However, at that time I already had a strong confidence through my experience to work with various stakeholders, that politics and policies are the keys for telecommunication development, rather than technologies, budget and other elements.

After the USPNet upgrade proposal became international ODA project of Japan, New Zealand and Australian governments, I wanted to summarise what I had done and found, then ascertain what I had to do in the next step by studying with international relations (political science) as an academic perspective.

In 1997, I started my second Masters study at Aoyama Gakuin University under the supervision of Professor Akio Watanabe. I argued that politics and policies are heavily entangling telecommunication development. This involved not only local politics but also high politics, such as the cold war background with satellite development and international politics. My Masters thesis tried to focus on these political discussions. In 1999, I finished my thesis which included the recommendation on Japan - United States cooperation for the telecommunication development of the Micronesian region in areas not covered by the University of South Pacific. That is, those areas where the people of Micronesia did not have access to higher education from their home countries.
In 2000, Japan hosted two events: in April the second Pacific Island Leaders Summit, and in July the G8 summit, both in Okinawa-Kyushu. Mr Sasakawa was asked by the late Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi to advice for the second Pacific Islands Leader Summit which was linked to the G8. One of the G8 summit outcomes was the IT Support Scheme with a budget of 15 billion USD (Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society 2000). The Pacific Islands Leader Summit also agreed to Implement the Pacific IT Promotion Projects (Pacific Common Frontiers Initiative
 Miyazaki Initiative 2000).
The Sasakawa Peace Foundation tried to support a proposal to the Japanese Government for the Distance Education in Micronesia which was developed by three Micronesian countries: Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of Marshall Islands. However, the Japanese government declined the proposal. I found that the Japanese government, and more specifically the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, could not understand the need of the Micronesia, especially about the policies and political issues behind the telecommunication development. In 2002 I launched the study committee, ‘Pacific Islands Digital Opportunity Committee’, under a Board of Committee of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation. This committee studied ICT for development (ICT4D) with a wide perspective, especially on policy issues. This committee also tried to support policy reform, especially in Micronesia. As the result there has been policy discussions such as discussion papers from the Republic of Palau under the initiative of Hon Sandra Perantozzi, the first woman Vice President of the Republic of Palau (2001-2004). The Federated States of Micronesia finally announced their ICT policy in 2014 with initiative of Hon. Francis Itimai, Secretary for Transportation, Communications, and Infrastructure of the Federated States of Micronesia, and passed their telecommunication deregulation bill in the same year.
Recently, towards the end of my thesis writing, the Republic of Palau needed to deregulated their telecommunication bill in order to get access to an Asia Development Bank loan to connect the international undersea telecommunications cable project. I provided intellectual advice on such as deregulation, meaning of Universal Service, with request from the Palauan public, based on my thesis research. As the result Palau government approved the new telecommunication bill which introduced deregulation and competition in their telecommunication service regime, on the 21st September 2015.
When I started my PhD in 2008, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation had a new Chairman and the Pacific Island Nations Fund changed its focus from ICT to maritime security projects. However, telecommunication is always a key component of security, so I could still keep touch with ICT issues in the Pacific within the capacity of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation as well. It is a great opportunity for this study to keep up the current discussions and movement in the development of telecommunication in the Pacific Islands.
パラオの海底通信ケーブル(4) [2015年09月23日(Wed)]
---tr-to-signs.gif

Courtesy of Island Times




9月21日の月曜日、大統領が海底通信ケーブル会社設置法にサインした。
この歴史的瞬間をこのブログに納めておきたい。
当方にとっては20年近い宿題だった。ナカムラ大統領、クアルテイ文部大臣(当時)、テレイ学長そしてパラオの人々とミクロネシアの人々。。

下記は地元紙Island Timesから
http://islandtimes.us/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1932%3Atr-signs-into-law-fy-2016-budget-fiber-optic-cable-bill&catid=8%3Alatest-news&Itemid=1

TR signs into law FY 2016 budget, fiber optic cable bill
WRITTEN BY JOSE RODRIGUEZ T. SENASE
MONDAY, 21 SEPTEMBER 2015 23:29
President Remengesau signed into law yesterday the fiber optic cable bill and the proposed Fiscal year (FY) 2016 budget.
The signing was held at the Council of Chiefs Office in the National Capitol. Also present during the ceremony were Vice President Antonio Bells, Acting Senate President Raynold Oilouch, House Speaker Sabino Anastacio, members of the Council of Chiefs, senators, delegates, ministers, governors, and others.
In signing the fiber optic cable bill, which has become RPPL No. 9-47, the President thanked the lawmakers for working diligently on the passing the measure.
The measure establishes the Belau Submarine Cable Corporation (BSCC) as the authority to own, manage, and procure fiber optic cable for Palau.
The measure states that the initial incorporator of this public corporation is the Palau Government, represented by the Minister of Finance.
It is provide that five board members are to be appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. According to the new law, the Board has the authority to perform all of the powers and duties of the corporation, and to delegate authority to a duly hired Chief Executive Officer to the extent necessary to carry out the powers and duties of the corporation in the best interest of the corporation.
“The people of Palau have been eagerly awaiting the passage of this piece of legislation so that our nation can move forward with this critical project,” he said.
The President said reforming and developing the telecommunications sector is a key priority for the Republic and connecting Palau to the rest of the world via cable is one of the first steps to achieving such goals.
“Fiber optic connectivity will open the doors to opportunities such as e-Health, e-Education, and an improved offering for tourists visiting Palau,” he stressed.
Remengesau said there is still work to be done. “Passing this piece of legislation is just the first step for overall reform of the telecommunications sector, and it is also just the first step for the cable project,” he said.
The President said Rhinehart Silas and the team he has assembled to work on the cable project will continue to be tasked and are progressing negotiations with SEA-US and ADB to ensure that the cable project with the SEA-US is realized.
The President said that one of the key tasks that remain is the ultimate ratification of the loan terms with the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
In signing the FY 2016 budget, the President said they were pleased that the budget the OEK sent to them is in line with their revenue estimates based on their economic outlook for fiscal year 2016.
“Maintaining fiscal discipline has enabled us to balance our budget, improve our ability to timely pay our bills and allow us to put some money away for emergencies,” he stressed.
The FY 2016 budget signed by the President appropriated the sum of $84,459,200 from the National Treasury for the annual general operations, special revenue, and debt service budget of Palau for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2016.
“We are especially pleased that with our improved financial position we have also increased support for our most vulnerable populations particularly those of fixed and low-income groups including our senior citizens, the physically disadvantaged and our children,” he said.
Notable new program initiatives in the FY 2016 budget include a $50 monthly increase to social security benefit payments, electrical power “Lifeline” subsidy program of up to 150KWH per month for eligible households and 40 percent increase in funding for scholarships.
The passage of the fiber optic cable bill in the OEK went through a conference committee, while the FY 2016 budget did not.
Delegate Jonathan Isechal, Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, said the signing ceremony showed that the leadership of the Palau Government- the President, Council of Chiefs, Senate, and House of Delegates- cooperate towards doing something in the interest of and for the safety, health, and general well-being of the people of the Palau and the nation.
パラオの海底通信ケーブル(3) [2015年09月18日(Fri)]
パラオの海底通信ケーブルの件、多くの読者から貴重なコメント、アドヴァイスをいただきました。
改めて感謝致します。

9月15日、パラオ議会の委員長交代という、どんでん返しの末、無事に通信改訂法、具体的には海底ケーブル運営会社の設置が議会承認を得ました。来週早々にも大統領のサインをもらい、アジ銀の融資が可能となります。
そして2016年にはインドネシアから米国を繋ぐSEA-USに接続し、はれてパラオもブロードバンドの世界に。日本のe-business, e-learning等々通信産業の支援も期待できます。また財団が進めるミクロネシア海上保安事業等安全保障面でも有効に利用される事が期待で来ます。

2000年の第2回島サミットとG8 (通称「IT憲章」15billionUSDの支援を日本政府が提案)の動きも見ながら、笹川太平洋島嶼国基金はミクロネシアのICT活動を支援してきました。15年の間に色々ありましたが、今回の件は一つのマイルストーンです。
最後になりましたが、当時本件を支えていただいた、笹川会長、渡辺昭夫運営委員長(当時)、森元総理!にもこの場を借りてご報告させていただきます。


蛇足ながら、インドネシアから米国を繋ぐ通信ケーブルは第一次世界大戦の事をご存知の方なら、日本にとって因縁のケーブルである事はお分かりいただけると存じます。
100年前、独米の共同運営をしていた同ケーブルはヤップを中継地としていました。そのヤップが日本領になるかどうかの情報戦が平間洋一先生の本に書かれています。
日本領になった事で、米国の反日は一機に加熱。ワシントン軍縮会議につながります。

参考
Give us Yap! Give us Yap!
https://blog.canpan.info/yashinomi/archive/772


下記はパラオの地元紙
[OEK Acts on Fiber Optic Cable and FY2016]
The OEK in one session day passed two major pieces of legislations with the approval of the milestone Belau Submarine Cable Corporation and the Fiscal Year 2016 budget.
The chances for Palau to acquire an undersea fiber optic cable bring us closer to reality following the Olbiil Era Kelulau’s approval of the bill to establish the Belau Submarine Cable Corporation (BSCC) on September 15, President Remengesau is expected to sign the bill early next week.
The bill, HB No. 9-163-16S, HD3, SD3, CD1, cleared OEK after one of the biggest policy battles of the Ninth Constitutional Government with the bill’s senate opposition putting up a spirited fight until the end.
The bill establishes a statement owned corporation, known as Belau Submarine Cable Corporation, to procure and manage the fiber optic cable.
After the Senate approved their version of the BSCC on Sep 10, it was quickly rejected by the house the next day, on Sep 11, setting up a conference committee with members of both houses to find a compromise.
The first conferees’ discussion failed to produce an agreed version, which led to another conference session but with new conferee members.
“On September 14, 2015, the Conference Committee began discussion but failed to reach an agreement. On September 15, the Senate appointed new members to the Conference Committee and that same day your Conference Committee obtained consensus on this important legislation,” said the bill’s conference committee report.
At issue were the differing views on the corporation designated with the authority to procure, own, and manage a fiber optic cable and telecommunications services in Palau.
“The House of Delegates version creates a new corporation known as Belau Submarine Cable Corporation (BSCC) and BSCC Board of Directors that is endowed with the authority to undertake all actions necessary to facilitate, promote, and manage the fiber optic cable procurement and high speed, broadband internet services for the Republic. The Senate version, on the other hand, empowers an existing corporation, Palau National Communications Corporation to procure own, and manage the fiber optic cable and oversee telecommunications services. In addition to these duties, however, PNCC would also be required to cooperate with the national government to acquire a fiber optic cable by seeking out sources of funding to pay for the venture. These measures were added because the pre-existing negotiations between the Republic and ADB are put in jeopardy by PNCC management of the fiber optic cable. Therefore, the national government would have to solicit outside loan, grant, or other aid to seek new funding for the cable,” said the conferee’s report.
Financing through the Asian Development Bank is contingent upon a wholly separate entity other than PNCC for fiber optic cable and internet service provision management. “[I]n order to take advantage of the ADB loan agreement, BSCC or a similarly structured corporation must be created to manage the fiber optic cable. Your Conference Committee has discussed this reality and jointly agrees that the language proposed by the House of Delegates creating the separate corporation called BSCC should be adopted,” said the conferee’s report.
However, the final version agreed with the Senate in appropriating $410,000 in fiscal year 2015 to secure Republic’s interest in a fiber optic.
The bill was quickly passed on the same day the conference report came out.
In a dramatic shift, Senator Baules joined forces with the minority-bloc members forming the Senate conferees. Signing the report of the Senate was Baules as chair of the Senate conferees with Sen. Senior as vice chair, and members Oilouch, Inabo, M. Whipps, Surangel Jr., and Reklai.
House members signing the committee report are Mario Gulibert as chairman, Masasinge Arurang as vice chair, members Otobed, Basilius, Ngiraiwet, Kemesong, Ngemaes, Gibbons, and Madrangchar.
Fiscal Year 2016 Budget.
The House and the Senate on September 15 both gave their approval for the FY2016 budget law that authorizes $84.9 million and appropriates $84.5 million for the annual operations, special revenue, and debt service of the national government.
Both houses agreed to President Remengesau’s version – HB No. 9-191-11, HD6, SD3, PD1 – when he referred the bill back to OEK to consider his recommendations.
Key concerns the President raised in the referral of the budget was reduced funding for other agencies, policy initiatives imposed in the budget, and technical corrections that need to be made.
“[A] number of key agency and programs budgets require further considerations as reduced funding will affect their capacity to effectively provide the services required of them. At the same time, several policy initiatives imposed in the budget will likely not produce the desired outcomes but rather adversely affect our financial capacity. In addition, technical corrections are needed to ensure that agreed policy initiatives and budgeted activities have the budget authority to operate,” the President said in his referral letter.
Remengesau restored cuts made to Bureau of Customs, Revenue and Taxation, Bureau of Foreign Affairs and Technical Assistance. Also with funding restored are Office of the Special Prosecutor, Office of the Public Auditor, and the National Postal System.
Belau National Museum and Palau National Red Cross had their budget restored.
Tia Belau News. Sep 17, 2015.

- - - - - - - - - - -
Fiber Optic Cable bill to become law
WRITTEN BY ADMINISTRATOR
THURSDAY, 17 SEPTEMBER 2015 23:04
President Remengesau to sign it on Monday
In a public comment today, President Remengesau Jr., expressed that he will be signing the bill creating a Belau Submarine Cable Corporation into law on Monday September 21, 2015. He expressed his gratitude to all that worked toward making this very important bill become a reality.
Belau Submarine Cable Corporation bill took center stage in the political arena for the past eight months with majority bloc of the Senate, and EPUI Committee chaired by Senator Toribiong holding on to the bill, citing a need for further study.
The bill became a topic of public debate on various forums, from coffee shops, to social media, to radio talk shows and to public conferences, with majority of the people showing support for the bill.
Timing and funding were two major factors inciting the debate. Timing due to the funding agency’s (Asian Development Bank) loan timetable, which is set for review and approval in December and the SEA-US Cable project’s commitment timeline, which was extended to the end of this month, September 30.
SEA-US Cable, a consortium of telecom companies laying a state-of-the-art submarine fiber optic cable to Guam from Indonesia and passing close to Palau, has offered an opportunity to Palau to join it but gave Palau a deadline to commit to the project.“Funding through ADB is contingent upon fiber optic cable and internet service provision management… be by a wholly separate entity and not PNCC”, according to the Conference Committee Report.
Senate passed on September 9, their version of the House bill 9-163-16S, HD3, SD3, CD1, which deleted the Belau Submarine Cable Corporation as the authority to own and manage the fiber cable project and transferred the authority to Palau National Telecommunications Corporation (PNCC).
It went beyond fiber optic to expand the role of PNCC to permit and regulate all other telecom providers in Palau. House rejected the Senate’s version and bill went to a Conference Committee, made up of the Senate EPUI Committee members, Senator Joel Toribiong, Senator Mark Rudimch, Senator Mlib Tmetuch, Senator Phillip Reklai and Senator Mason Whipps and House Committee of the Whole which included all members of the House.
The Report from this Conference Committee retained the Senate version and the members that signed the report included Senators Joel Toribiong, Mark Rudimch, and Mlib Tmetuchl. Senator Phillip Reklai signed with reservations and Senator Mason Whipps did not sign.
House members of the Committee all did not sign except for Delegate Mario Gulibert. With this, the report was not adopted and was referred back to both Houses.
During Senate Session on September 15th to discuss the bill, Senator Surangel Whipps Jr., made a motion to create a new committee to deal with the matter since the first committee failed.
The committee was made up of Senators Rukebai Inabo, Raynold Oilouch, Phillip Reklai, Uduch Sengebau Senior, Mason Whipps, Surangel Whipps Jr. and was chaired by Senator Hokkons Baules.
The new Senate Committee joined the House Committee of the Whole and they approved the original version of the bill, reinstating BSCC as the authority to own, manage and procure fiber optic cable to Palau.
The new draft also reinstated other important parts of the bill including having the Minister of Finance as the initial incorporator of this corporation.
This means that the work on the financing and contracting can begin immediately while new board members are still going through the appointment and approval process so that the project timetables can be met.
Also restored is the language that states that this will not be issuing stocksbut “provided that that in 10 years the government may consider privatizing this corporation or establishing a public-private partnership.”
The bill added appropriation of $410,000 to secure Palau’s interest in the fiber optic submarine cable. This would enable Palau to secure its interest on the SEA-US Cable project.
This new Conference Committee version of SB 9-163 was signed by all the members of the committee of both Houses.
After heated contest in the Senate by original Committee members, Senator Hokkons Baules, Senator Rukebai Inabo, Senator Uduch Sengebau Senior, Senate President Camsek Chin, Senator Mason Whipps, Senator Phillip Reklai and Senator Surangel Whipps Jr. adopted the Conference Committee Report and voted to accept the bill.
The bill is set to become law on September 21, 2015 upon signing by President Tommy Remengesau Jr.
PEACESATとPARTNERS [2015年09月12日(Sat)]
米国がNASAの中古衛星を利用して無料で提供した衛星通信事業PEACESAT - Pan-Pacific education and communication experiments by satellite という事業がある。
笹川太平洋島嶼国基金は、PAECEATの再出発と2012年に同事業が終了するまで、様々な形で支援、共同事業を展開した。

その背景の一つには日本の衛星通信開発がPEACESATの国際協力という理念に注目し、様々な技術的共同研究を進めていた事もある。すなわち日本国内に強い関心があったのだ。

当方が財団に入った1991年度の事業の一つがPEACESAT政策会議助成であった。
1992年雪の降る仙台の東北大学で太平洋島嶼国を中心に26か国(地域)から300名を集めPAECESAT政策会議が笹川太平洋島嶼国基金の助成(約2千5百万円)で開催された。

当時郵政省は国際宇宙年に合わせ、PEACESATを模倣したPARTNERS ー PAn-pacific Regional Telecommunications Network Experiment and Research Satelliteという衛星実験事業を抱えており、基金助成とほぼ同額の資金が出て来た。合計で5千万円位の会議になったと思う。

実はこの会議助成を提案したのは自分である。勿論、運営委員会、理事会の決定によるが、同会議が当時検討していたUSPNet事業と関連して来る事をすぐに理解しひらめき、またUSPNet支援に当たっては日本がお金を出すだけでなく某かの参加、協力の道をつけたい、と考えたからである(まだ20代だったのにすごい!誰も褒めてくれないので自画自賛)。

当時(多分今も)財団内で情報通信を理解する人は誰もいず、必死で勉強したのを覚えている。それどころか、NASA長官が参加する、という話も出て来てエラク怒られたのを覚えている。(私のせいではないのだが。。)

当時は衛星事業インテルサットの民営化なんて話はなく、途上国の遠隔地の教育や医療サービスの手段として、国際協力による衛星の運営が検討されていたのである。

基金は郵政省が進めるPARTNERSの研究を支援するミッションはなかったが同研究に関わる飯田尚志博士等専門家に、基金が主催する遠隔教育研究会のメンバーとなって戴いた関係でPARTNERSの動きも横目追っていた。


ここ数日PEACESATの関連論文をまとめていて急にこのPARTNERSを思い出し、検索してみた。

PARTNERSは1996年3月31日で終了していた。
下記の記事には商業衛星を利用して継続、とあるが、その成果はあったのであろうか?

「PARTNERS計画を振り返って」
井出 俊行
CRLニュース  1996.04 No.242
http://www.nict.go.jp/publication/CRL_News/9604/partners.html


「ETS−Vを用いた汎太平洋情報ネットワーク実験とPARTNERS計画」
飯田 尚志
CRLニュース  No.199 1992.10
http://www.nict.go.jp/publication/CRL_News/back_number/199/199.htm#199-2
(この記事の中で飯田博士が述べているのが笹川太平洋島嶼国基金が助成した会議である。)

「アジア太平洋情報ネットワーク実験 −パートナーズ計画− 」
若菜 弘充
CRLニュース No.208 1993.7
http://www.nict.go.jp/publication/CRL_News/back_number/208/208.htm#208-2
パラオの海底通信ケーブル(2) [2015年09月08日(Tue)]
パラオの海底通信ケーブル接続の件で、引き続き動いている。
当方にとっては15年越しの案件である。


起源はもっと遡る。
1988年、日本政府に10年先駆けて笹川平和財団が開催した太平洋島嶼会議開催の前後に(当方はまだいなかった)フィジーのカミセセ•マラ閣下が笹川会長に太平洋島嶼国のために衛星を上げて欲しいと要請。
会議の成果として設置された基金が南太平洋大学が開発していた遠隔教育ネットワークーUSPNetの支援を検討する事となった。1991年財団に入った当方の業務はここから始まる。
途中笹川会長(当時基金運営委員長)の判断で日本のODA案件にする事になり、日本政府主催の1997年第一回太平洋島サミットの目玉案件にするに至った。

南太平洋大学にはミクロネシア諸国は入っていない。(マーシャル諸島は加入)
USPNetの次の目標としてミクロネシアの遠隔教育ネットワークを設置すべく、まずは2つ目の修士論文を、提言も含める形で、渡辺昭夫教授の下でまとめさせていただいた。

パラオのナカムラ元大統領の要請もあり、ミクロネシアの通信ネットワークの案を作成し、2001年フィジーで、ナカムラ元大統領から森元総理に直接手渡す事ができた。
2001年という年を覚えているのは理由がある。
森元総理のフィジー訪問をアレンジをされたのは笹川会長である。9.11のすぐ後で、森元総理がフィジー行きをキャンセルする動きがあったのだが、笹川会長からアドバイスがあり、フィジー訪問が実現したと聞いている。
その後、外務省(多分当時の宮島大洋州課長)の判断で同案件は却下されてしまった。

しかし、当方は諦めずに2002年には通信制度改革を支援すべくデジタルオポチュニティ研究会を立ち上げた。
ここでパラオの通信制度改革の提言書(多分始めての通信政策書だと思う)の作成を試みた。ミクロネシア連邦でもその動きを作り、2014年に自由化法案が成立した。

ミクロネシア連邦通信自由化法案成立
https://blog.canpan.info/yashinomi/archive/910


2000年か2003年以降、世銀やアジ銀もICT支援に本腰を入れ始めた。
背景には2000年のG8サミットで日本政府が提案したIT憲章と15BillionUSDの資金援助があったと想像する。またはITUのWSISの動きに反応したものと想像する。
そして携帯電話会社デジセルのカリブ諸国や、太平洋の島々での携帯電話ビジネス成功も拍車をかけたと思う。

2000年代半ばから太平洋島嶼国の通信の規制改革と競争が一機に加速した。
そしてやっとパラオ、ヤップである。
まだ結果は出ていないが、現在検討されている案はかなりの好条件であり、パラオ国民、政府の動きを引き続き見守りたい。多くの情報提供もさせていただいている。
デジセルー矢内原ーアイルランド紀行 [2015年09月04日(Fri)]
娘のご先祖様の一人であるLord Edward Fitzgeraldの墓参りも兼ねて来年アイルランド行きを計画している。

そこにカリブ諸島と南太平洋で展開する携帯電話会社デジセルの件を論文の中で書く事になり、オーナーのDenis O'Brien氏と経営哲学とアイルランドの歴史的背景が切っても切り離せない関係である事がわかった。



アイルランド人はイギリス人の過酷な植民地政策の中で奴隷としてカリブ諸国に売り飛ばされていたのだ。
急にアイルランドの歴史やアイルランド気質を知りたくなって、矢内原忠雄先生が「アイルランド問題の沿革」というのを書いていて、手元にあったので早速読んだ。
アイルランドは一時はヨーロッパ文明国としてリーダー的存在だった時代もあるのだ。
イギリス人に最初に詩を教えたのはアイルランド人との説も。
それが惨めにもイギリス植民地になってからは宗教を理由に教育を受けさせない、土地を売買させない等々の愚民政策をやられたおかげで英国内で、若しくは英国圏で差別される存在となってしまった。ジャガイモ飢饉などアイルランドの悲劇は語り尽くせない。

矢内原は娘のご先祖様が1798年に企て、殺害された革命についても同情と共に触れている。

ところでアイルランド、と言えばケネディ大統領でもある。
ケネディ大使がいつも緑の服を着ていらっしゃるのはアイルランドを意識して、であろう。
オーストラリア、米国(カリブ諸島にも?)に多くの移民を送り出しているアイルランドを知る事は日本の安全保障上も重要かもしれない。
100年前の反日の背景にはアイルランド人の差別の不満の矛先を日本に向ける、という策略もあった、とこれはどこかで目にして記憶にあるのだが、しっかりは調べていない。


追記:矢内原のアイルランド研究を、研究した論文があった。
「朝鮮関係をアイルランド史中に読むべしー矢内原忠雄未発表講義ノートの検討ー」 齋藤 英里
武蔵野大学政治経済研究所年報 (第1号),281-302頁 2009/03
www.musashino-u.ac.jp/facilities/...of.../11.saito_281-302.pdf
パラオ海底通信ケーブル設置に向けた緊急提言 [2015年09月03日(Thu)]
現在パラオは海底通信ケーブルに接続できるかどうか、即ちブロードバンドの環境が得られるかどうかで危機的状況に面している。

ADBは既に本件に対しローンを決定しているが、競争導入が条件となっている。
パラオ議会で緊急議案となっている背景には、昨年NECが受注したインドネシアからロスアンジェルスを結ぶ海底通信ケーブル事業が動いており、ここにパラオ、ヤップが接続するまさに千載一遇の機会を目の前にしているからだ。
パラオ国内の反対意見は、既存電話会社が抱える借金の返済が未だ約25億円残っており、ユニバーサルサービスを提供する同社をこのまま競争状態に持って行く事は不平等である、という内容だ。これは全く合理的な意見ある。現在年間約2億円の返済を行っている同社を守る形で、平等な競争環境を作るため下記の3点を提案したい。
なお、本件は8年前まで笹川太平洋島嶼国基金事業として担当していたが、最近の動向はニュースやうわさ話で知る範囲で、極めて限られた情報の中で提案させていただいている事をお断りしておく。

(参考)「パラオの海底通信ケーブル」
https://blog.canpan.info/yashinomi/archive/1278

1) 足枷となっている、現在米国政府から受けているローンの放棄か、4.65%の利子の見直しを米国政府と交渉すべきだ。皮肉な事にこのローンはRUS (Rural Utility Service) と言って、30年代の大恐慌対策としてルーズベルト政権が地方のユニバーサルサービス(主に電気)のために設置した制度である。また現在世界規模で進められているICT分野の規制緩和とデジタルディバイドの克服は90年代のゴア副大統領の下で力強く提言されたGII構想が根底にある。米国はこの分野で指導力を示すべきだ。
2) ユニバーサルサービス基金の設置を行う事。この基金を現在PNCCが抱えているローン返済を救済するとともに、教育、保健、遠隔地等へのユニバーサルサービス支援に活用する。2008年に規制緩和が行われたバヌアツでは”Pay or Play”と言って、ユニバを義務づけられているテレコム(TVLとDigicel)は払う義務がないが、ユニバの義務がないテレコム、即ち人口が集中する都市等にサービスを提供するテレコムは売り上げ総利益の4%を基金に供出する制度がある。
3) 日本やイギリスが競争導入と共にとった制度はユニバーサルサービスを提供している既存のテレコム(NTTとBT)を守る方式だ。日本の場合は電話番号ごとにユニバーサルサービス料を徴収し、ユニバを提供するNTTへの赤字補填に備えている。パラオの場合、人口2万人と少ないが、年間14万人の観光客市場があり、これらの通信利用者に某かのユニバーサルサービス料を課金する事である程度の規模の基金収入を期待できるのではなかろうか。


Palau is now facing a crucial turning point for overcoming the digital divide or not.
ADB promised to give them a loan for connecting the undersea cable.
Plus, an ongoing mega international cable project plans to pass near Palau and Yap. This was originally going to link Indonesia-Philippines-Guam-Hawaii-Los Angels.
However, there is strong opposition in Palau who mainly argue that the incumbent PNCC should be protected as they have a 25 million dollar loan from the US government with a 4.65% interest rate and they still need to pay 2 million dollars a year over the next few decades.
I would like to suggest the following three points which would protect PNCC and introduce “fair competition” in Palau.


1. We should seek a waiver or change the interest rate of the current loan from the US government. It is ironic that the origin of this loan – RUS (Rural Utility Service) was established for the “Universal Service” for rural areas in the 1930s during the Roosevelt administration. Also the US is the leader of ICT and the digital divide, as Al Gore announced the GII (Global Information Infrastructure) in the 90s.

2. Make a regulation for the Universal Service Fund which may help PNCC's large loan as well as the education and health activities using ICT. In Vanuatu they call it “Pay or Play”. The telecom company who has Universal Service Obligations does not need to pay for this fund. However, other telecom companies who do not have any Universal Service Obligation, i.e. they do not need to cover the high cost of areal distributions (eg. rural and remote areas which can not expect any reasonable revenue returns), pay 4% of their net profit towards the Fund.
see https://www.ptc.org/assets/uploads/papers/ptc15/3.%20Ron_Box_presentation_to_PTC_15_Final%20Final%20Final.pdf

3. Japan and England introduced the same scheme to protect their incumbent telecom – NTT and BT - who have Universal Service obligations, while still introducing competition. In Japan all telecom companies are charged a Universal Service fee for each number (about 5 cent). Palau has large tourist numbers, 140,000 a year, compared to its population of 20,000. There may be a possibility to charge a Universal Service fee to these telecom users.


<参考資料>
インフラ委員会のプレスリリースでローンの競争導入を反対する内容
PRESS RELEASE: SENATE COMMITTEE ON EPUIThe Senate Committee on Energy, Public Utilities and Infrastructure (EPUI) continues work on the proposed House Bill No. 9-163-16S, HD3 to establish the Belau Submarine Cable Corporation. While it has received and reviewed information helpful to reaching its final recommendation to the floor of the Senate through correspondence, hearings and other discussions, critical considerations still remain leaving some members apprehensive about the proposed bill’s passage in its current form. The Committee progressively engages in its discussions seeking to clarify among others the following:The intent of this Bill is to create a state owned enterprise that will be responsible for the construction and maintenance of a fiber optic cable. A dilemma arises from the concept of creating a new state owned enterprise, the Belau Submarine Cable Corporation to procure and manage the fiber optic cable. It shall serve as the implementing agency for the fiber optic cable project. This in essence precludes the existing public corporation (PNCC), mandated by law to provide telecommunications services in the Republic from this procurement, management or ownership process. This is of concern as PNCC owns and maintains as well the infrastructure in the Republic for this purpose and employs local employees in its daily operation. It is tasked with the cost recovery for its services and operations as well as repayment of an RUS loan that the Republic has guaranteed under its full faith credit authority. While we understand the liberalization issues associated with the fiber-optic process, to exclude PNCC from direct participation in the process may be ill advised and the Committee finds this an obstacle in the passage of this proposed bill. The entity tasked with cost recovery should play an intricate role not only in the acquisition of the fiber-optic cable but its ownership as well. To establish a state owned enterprise to serve the purpose of implementing agency for the project when one with a long standing commitment to serve Palau already exists is simply taking one step forward and two steps back – a rationale that just doesn’t make practical sense.In short, this proposed legislation to form the Belau Submarine CableCorporation to wholesale to PNCC completely ignores that PNCC is mandated by law to provideUniversal Service in the Republic.The Committee has additional concerns regarding debt repayment. Allowing BSCC to emerge and tosell to PNCC and private enterprises that compete directly against PNCC will put PNCC at a hugedisadvantage as it is burdened with the RUS loan with an outstanding balance of 25 million dollars.MicroPal claims lower costs for internet connection as compared to the current satellite system. This, ineffect, will result in better savings also for the privately owned companies seeking to gain PNCC'smarket share. The committee thinks strongly that it would be gravely irresponsible to simply rubber-stamp processes not in the best interest of the Republic of Palau. We cannot endorse by law, a projectthat can ultimately force PNCC into defaulting on its RUS loan obligation based on the excuse of thesame officers who have acknowledged poor governance of the entity. This Bill in essence proposes thiswithout directly addressing the serious issues of a regulatory framework and how PNCC (a state ownedenterprise) will fare.The Senate EPUI Committee is working to finalize a draft report of this proposed legislation mindful to address these and other critical concerns.Toribiong, JoelChairman, Senate Committee on EPUI


パラオ商工会議所のケーブルを支持する記事
[Palau Chamber of Commerce: Benefits from fiber optic cable will exceed cost]
ISLAND TIMES. Sept 01, 2015.
The Palau Chamber of Commerce has come out in support of Palau’s effort to connect to the submarine fiber optic cable and the establishment of the Belau Submarine Cable Corporation (BSCC).
In a letter to Senator Joel Toribiong, Chairman on Energy, Public Utilities, and Infrastructure, Dr. Victor Yano, President of PCOC said the fiber optic cable has their backing.
“First and foremost our members are in full support of the Republic’s efforts to acquire and install a fiber optic cable,” he said.
Yano said this position is supported for many reasons including the following: 1) Based on tourist survey data presented during the 2014 Economic Symposium fast and reliable Internet is expected by our high value tourism customers; 2) Economic growth opportunities in new businesses and services such as Internet cafes and commerce; 3) Lower business costs with fast and reliable Internet access; 4) Better and more efficient government services through automation and on-line payments and filings; and 5) Development of a more competitive workforce with improved access to health and educational resources.
“We understand that $20-$25 million is a large sum of money that may increase Palau’s debt. The above benefits from having better Internet access are believed to exceed the cost,” Yano said.
“Palau’s biggest cost challenge is a small market across which to spread the cost. An even more important question is whether or not Palau can afford not to invest in a fiber optic cable,” he added.
Yano said the specific points they would like to highlight regarding the establishment of the BSCC and the fiber optic cable connection are as follows:
The Ministry of Finance as the shareholder representative., The Chamber of Commerce has endorsed government recommended Governance Principles for State Owned Enterprises. These principles include the designation of a shareholder representative which is the Ministry of Finance. This designation is considered to be a standard practice for government and the Ministry of Finance is best suited for this role. Essentially, the Ministry of Finance already provides this oversight when it manages the performance review and budget call activities for these corporations and government. Under improved governance principles, the Ministry will also ensure the corporations develop corporate plans in-line with national priorities and with a view to operate as commercial enterprises. This oversight process will be more efficient than the current practice of oversight by multiple agencies which are typically the Office of the President, relevant regulatory agencies and Ministries. The Olbiil era Kelulau will continue its role in the checks and balance process.
Procurement for the fiber optic cable should ideally go through a competitive bidding process. We ask that the process used by the corporation to secure a fiber optic cable be transparent and involve some stakeholder consultations.
Yano noted that the approach proposed in the legislation includes 1) The creation of the cable corporation; 2) Creation of a National Regulatory Framework for telecommunications; and 3)To address the viability of the Palau National Communications Corporations (PNCC).
“A separate cable corporation rather than government agency encourages commercialization of this important asset. Establishing a telecommunications regulatory framework levels the playing field for additional competitors to enter the market, including PNCC,” he said.
“Lastly, PNCC’s viability is improved when it is not the owner of the fiber optic cable and debt,” he pointed out.
Yano acknowledged that concerns have been expressed regarding the viability of PNCC.
“We continue to advocate that PNCC (and other public corporations) outsource as much activities as possible and that it be considered for privatization or at least some private ownership,” he said.
“PNCC is in the unique position of ownership of valuable assets allowing it a strategic advantage over new entrants to the market,” Yano added.
Yano said they acknowledged that PNCC is burdened by the USDA Rural Utility Services Loan and its universal service mandate.
“Because the issue with PNCC is internal, it should and be taken separately from the creation of the cable company and the establishment of a regulatory regime for telecommunications,” he added.
According to him, the Chamber of Commerce believes that establishment of BSCC would not cause PNCC’s dissolution and instead they believe that PNCC’s dissolution as a government enterprise is inevitable.
The Senate’s slow action on the BSCC bill is endangering Palau’s chance of having faster Internet connectivity soon through the submarine fiber optic cable connection.
The BSCC bill is stuck in the Senate EPUI Committee.
パラオの海底通信ケーブル [2015年08月31日(Mon)]
2901-01.jpg


Available from:「NEC、東南アジアと米国を結ぶ光海底ケーブル「SEA-US」の建設請負契約を締結」2014年8月29日、日本電気株式会社 http://jpn.nec.com/press/201408/20140829_01.html


ミクロネシア連邦の通信制度改革が、笹川太平洋島嶼国基金の助成で開始し、その後世銀等の支援を受けて昨年、モリ政権下で法案が通った事をこのブログでもお伝えした。

ミクロネシア連邦国家ICT電信電話政策
https://blog.canpan.info/yashinomi/archive/722

ミクロネシアの海底通信ケーブルに世銀51ミリオンドル か?
https://blog.canpan.info/yashinomi/archive/972


パラオーヤップーグアムを結ぶ海底ケーブル事業はミクロネシア連邦とパラオの国家共同事業としてミクロネシア大統領サミットでも協議され、法案も通り、世銀、アジ銀の融資も確実になり、いよいよ実施という段階に入った。当方はこの事業は日本企業が受注すべきと、古屋議員や在ミクロネシア連邦大使館の坂井大使に陳情させていただいた。

ミクロネシア海底通信ケーブルー日本企業の参入目指せ!
https://blog.canpan.info/yashinomi/archive/1138


ところが、この海底ケーブルが、昨年NECが受注したインドネシアのメナドからフィリピン、グアム、ロスアンジェルスを結ぶSEA-USというケーブル施設事業に接続する方向で話が進んでいた事がわかった。

「NEC、東南アジアと米国を結ぶ光海底ケーブル「SEA-US」の建設請負契約を締結」
2014年8月29日
日本電気株式会社
http://jpn.nec.com/press/201408/20140829_01.html

なぜわかったか、というとここに来てパラオ議会が、新たなローンをアジア開発銀行から借りる事に反対する動きがあり、この黄金の機会を失ってしまう事態がニュースになっているからだ。


Palau misses out on fiber cable opportunity?
Island Times
WRITTEN BY JOSE RODRIGUEZ T. SENASE
MONDAY, 03 AUGUST 2015
http://www.islandtimes.us/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1506:palau-misses-out-on-fiber-cable-opportunity


どこの太平洋島嶼国も大きな財政赤字を抱えている。
パラオは1992年に米国政府から通信インフラ整備のための35年ローンを実施した。
ローンは$39,143,000で金利は4.59% 年間2億円強の返済だ。
これは米国のRUS(Rural Utilities Service)という制度で元来米国国内への融資である。これをこのままパラオ等の自由連合協定締結国に応用するのはどうなんであろうか?
RUSは1930年代、ルーズベルト大統領のニューディール政策の遺産でもある。

ちょっと調べたら世銀やアジ銀の融資金利は1%前後である。
4.59% ー 日本の民間銀行でさえ、こんな金利はつけない。
米国はなんのためにパラオを日本から奪ったのか?(答えは知っている。フィリピン奪回のためだ)
やっぱりミクロネシア3国は日本がしっかり支援すべきではないでしょうか?

米国政府に訴えたい。
米国はICTの分野では世界のリーダーなのである。
100年前に「ユニバーサルサービス」という言葉を生み出し、80年代世界に先駆け規制緩和を敢行し、ゴア副大統領の下、GIIー世界情報通信基盤政策を掲げ、インターネットを生み出した。
通信はベーシックヒューマンニーズである。
早急に金利の見直しか、ローンの放棄をすべきである。
太平洋島嶼国のデジタルオポチュニティ研究会 - PIDO [2015年08月23日(Sun)]
Siope VAkataki 'Of a博士の書いた電話通信規制緩和の本が面白い。

‘Ofa, S.V. 2010. Telecommunications Regulatory Reform in Small Island Developing States: the Impact of WTO’s Telecommunications Commitments.


太平洋島嶼国で一番に電話通信の規制緩和を進めたのは、My Your Royal Higness 即ちツポウ5世であった!
2003年の事。ツポウ5世は長年居座った大英帝国通信会社のCable & Wilressを追い出して規制改革を進め競争を導入し自らTONFONという携帯電話会社を立ち上げ、トンガの南北約800キロに渡る177の島々のデジタルディバイドを解消し、ユニバーサルサービスを実現したのである。

しかも面白い事に、規制緩和、自由化を反対したのが地元NGOとニュージーランドのOxfamというNGO。Oxfamが書いた規制緩和反対のペーパーを見つけた。同NGOはこの資料を配布し、トンガの規制緩和を押さえ込もとしたようである。(でもトンガ国民は王様には逆らえないのだ)

"Blood from a stone"
http://www.oxfam.org.nz/sites/default/files/reports/05%20Dec%2015%20Tonga_Blood_from_a_stone.pdf

(ちょっと長いが下記にテレコムの個所を引用する)
Telecommunications: As recently as November 2005, Tonga’s draft services schedule included only very limited commitments in the telecommunications sector. The final schedule however contains extensive liberalisation of most aspects of telecomms, including voice and internet services. It is hard to avoid the conclusion that last-minute demands from Working Party members led to the sudden change.
The fact that Tonga has liberalised its telecommunications sector in this way is likely to have adverse implications for those living in the more remote islands of the group, as well as for rural people on the main islands. This is because such customers are not profitable for telecoms companies and the companies will be reluctant to service them. Rich countries have a number of options for ensuring that all the population is covered by a telecommunications network. However, for poorer countries, particularly ones with a widely dispersed population, the only practicable way to ensure such universal coverage is to regulate to require service companies to provide it. However, a recent WTO disputes panel case makes it clear that any such regulation will be in violation of GATS requirements.12 The only way to avoid this result is to ensure GATS commitments are delayed until a full regulatory structure is in place, and to specify that the GATS commitments are subject to those regulations
Tonga’s commitments in telecommunications contrasts starkly with the process set up by New Zealand to protect its national interest in such a key service. Before the New Zealand government sold off a portion of Telecom New Zealand (the main telecommunications supplier), it agreed a comprehensive contract of sale, which imposed what it describes as ‘social obligations’ on the newly privatised monopoly.13 These obligations ensure that rural service delivery is maintained (with installation charges capped, regardless of actual cost), local calls remain free for residential customers, and basic phone charges remain reasonable by being linked to inflation. The New Zealand government has also limited the shareholding in Telecom of any single overseas entity to less than 50 per cent and requires that half of the Board members are New Zealand citizens.

ニュージーランドの例を押し付けるなよ、という感想です。

さて、USPNetを日本のODA案件にした知見と経験から電話通信開発は技術の問題より、資金の問題より、政策、政治であるという認識を得て太平洋島嶼国の「デジタル・オポチュニティ研究会」を笹川太平洋島嶼国基金事業として立ち上げた。
2008年から基金は海洋安全保障に大きく舵取りをしてしまったのでICTの動向は把握しきれていなかったが、上記の'Ofa博士の論文で少し見えてきた。

太平洋島嶼国のデジタル・オポチュニティ研究会
2002年 5,639,035円
2003年 6,240,743円
太平洋島嶼国のデジタル・オポチュニティ研究会/フェーズU
2004年 5,050,771円
2005年 11,891,575円

トンガを皮切りに、サモア、フィジー、パプアニューギニア、バヌアツと通信の規制緩和と競争が太平洋島嶼国に押し寄せたのである。
そして今、パラオとミクロネシア連邦に、その波がまさに届いたところなのだ、がまだまだ難関がありそうだ。

"7 senators call on Senate President to take action on fiber optic cable bill Say Palau needs fiber optic cable now"
WRITTEN BY JOSE RODRIGUEZ T. SENASE Island Times FRIDAY, 21 AUGUST 2015

"Palau President Makes All Out Push To Approve Fiber Optic Cable"
KOROR, Palau (Island Times, Aug. 13, 2015)
内海善雄元ITU事務総局長とインターネットガバナンス [2015年08月13日(Thu)]
images.jpeg


数年前、WSIS会議のhidden agendaがインターネットガバナンスであった事、即ち米国一極支配のインターネットの状態をITUが変革する事にあった事を知ってしばらくショックを受けていた。

なぜショックだったかというと、以前書いた通り、2003年に東京で開催されたWSISの会議に20名近い太平洋島嶼国のステークホルダーを集めてサイドイベントを開催したのは笹川太平洋島嶼国基金、即ち自分であったからだ。

WSIS東京宣言を作った笹川太平洋島嶼国基金
https://blog.canpan.info/yashinomi/archive/1259


インターネットガバナンスの変革は現在活発の議論されているサイバーセキュリティの問題につながる。インターネットが米国の一極支配から、多極支配になってさらにインターネットガバナンスは混迷の極み、国家安全保障の危機に遭遇している模様だ。

こんな重要な動きを作ったのは他でもない、日本人の内海善雄元ITU事務総局長のはずだが、当方が時たま見かけるインターネットガバナンスの議論に同氏の名前は見当たらない。
内海氏は米国という虎の尾を踏むどころか、正面に出向いて思いっきり引っぱたいたのである。
ある方に寄ると米国は内海氏を徹底的に嫌っている、という。それはそうであろう。

内海氏は何を考えてこんな敢行に出たのか?

2000年の沖縄G8で日本政府が主導したIT憲章(通称)ではデジタルディバイド解消に1兆5千億円(確か)の措置が発表されたが、外務省はすぐにこのネット巡る国際政治に気づいたのであろう。即ちこの予算の多くがITUに流れる可能性に気づいたのであろう。そして、その政治的意味も。
(インターネットガバナンスに関する日本政府の曖昧な対応は実は外務省対総務省という国内問題であったのではなかろうか?)
1兆5千億円の実際の援助案件は少なかったと思われる。評価も報告書も確認できない。(あったら教えて欲しい)漏れ聞く所では、その後外務省では本件はアンタッチャブルとの話もあった。


内海氏は何を考えてこんな敢行に出たのか?
幸い、内海善雄氏はウェッブを設置し、ご自身の意見を公表している。

内海善雄 前ITU事務総局長 ホームページ
http://yutsumi.web.fc2.com/

もしこれが英語で書かれていればもっと影響力はあるであろう。それほどまでに内海氏の米国に対する批判的態度は明確である。

その中でも気になったのが2011年11月24日から同年12月19日まで17回に渡って連載された「デジタル通信革命の舞台裏」である。ここに内海氏の対米観がしっかり読み取れるような気がする。
この連載は上記のウェッブにも掲載されている。
http://yutsumi.web.fc2.com/message/book/denpa_rensai.htm

まずは連載2回目にある、内海氏の米国留学体験だ。そこで見たのは米国ではノーという事が必要、米国の貧富の差(黒人差別も?)大学教育のレベルの低さだ。
そして連載12回目に米国との交渉の舞台裏が暴露されている。

 ”これら米国の要求を受けて立つ側になって直接、間接に交渉に携わった私は、まったく道理に合わない要求を受け入れなければならないことに「日本は主権国家か?」と歯軋りをする思いでいっぱいであった。”


この連載を読む限りでは、内海氏の対米観は批判的且つ厳しいものだ。


同連載14回には2003年のWSISの東京会議にはNTTドコモしか出資してくれなかった事が書かれている。内海氏が、このWSIS東京会議に太平洋島嶼国から多く参加があった事を喜んでいる記事があったが、納得した。

私も内情を今暴露しよう。
当時当方が担当する笹川太平洋島嶼国基金はPIDO (Pcific Islands Digitall Opportunity Committee)という研究事業を持っていた。これは1991年財団に入ると同時にUSPNet, PEACESATという事業を手がけてきた自分にとって、ICT開発が技術よりも資金よりも、政策が重要であるという知見から立ち上げた研究会だ。この研究会を基盤に、外務省と琉球大学が手がけていた交流事業を手伝って(実質仕切って)いたので、その島嶼国からの招聘者を沖縄会議の後、東京に留まらせる事とした。そして、基金事業のメディア交流事業を活用し、島嶼国のジャーナリストもここに呼んだのである。よってかなりのハイレベルと数のメンバーを揃える事になり、今思うと内海氏にかなり塩を送ったようなのだ。
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