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平和構築におけるコミュニティ・メディアの役割 Vol.2 [2011年04月22日(Fri)]
Q:メディアの平和構築者として、あなたは何にチャレンジしていますか?
M:私たちにとっての大問題は、私たちの感情です。 タイ人は感傷的なので筋道だった平和対話を進めることが難しいのです。偏見が表に出ないように細心の注意を払います。そこで、みんなの関心があることを話す草の根の集まりをもつようにします。問題になっていることがとても単純なこともよくあります。例えば、仏教徒はこの地域の多数派であるイスラム教徒が権力をとると、イスラム教でのタブーである豚肉を食べることが禁止されてしまうのではないかと心配していました。しかし草の根の会合に出て、イスラム教徒は禁止を求めてはいないので、自分たちの疑いに根拠がなかったことを知ったのです。
 自治というテーマのように問題が政治的に微妙な場合、同じ民族集団に属する小グループでの議論から始めます。人びとの気持ちを尊重しなければならないからです。他の民族集団と一緒に話すのは、次の段階です。もう一つ私たちが挑戦しなければならないのは、上から平和を求める圧力です。資金提供機関や政策立案者が平和を指図してはならないのです。人びとが望まないかぎり、持続的な平和は達成できません。現場の人びとが支持できず時間の浪費になることさえあるような課題を平和プロセスに持ち込んでくる海外の資金提供団体がいるのです。学術的な調査は普通の人びとが話していることに客観性を与えるものだということを、ふつうの人たちに学習・理解してもらうことも、私たちの直面している問題です。私たちのメディアは情報を提供しているだけではありません。人びとに知識をもたらし、非暴力に基づく新しい考えと構想を共に作りあげていくことを、私たちは望んでいます。多様な意見を尊重することは信頼を作りだすので生産的であることも、人びとに理解してもらいたいことです。権力者たちはこれまで宗教間の対話を行なってこなかったので、私たちの目標は簡単なものではありません。だからこそ、私たちの平和プロセスは長い道のりと多くの実践を必要としているのです。
Q:組織の構造と編集システムを教えてください。
M:私たちのストーリーは状況から作られます。事件が起きた時、私たちのレポートと分析はその事件を全てカバーします。それから外部の様々な人々に執筆を依頼します。三人の常勤スタッフを雇用しています。 研究者や記者、プログラマーなどはボランティアです。私自身もボランティアです。バンコクにも事務所があり、情報提供で大事な役割を果たしています。私の目標は、いろいろな民族集団に属するメディア組織や記者のネットワークをつくることです。そうなれば、ディープ・サウス・ウォッチはタイ南部に平和をもたらすための多様な情報と考え方を示すことのできるメディアとなり、平和構築における重要な活動体となるでしょう。

ソラヤ・ジャムジュリーさんへのインタビュー
Q:どんなお仕事をしているのですか。
ソラヤさん(以下、S):タイ南部の紛争は主流メディアでは死者数のみ報道されます。しかしバンコクのジャーナリストが人びと、とくに暴力に直面し続け苦しんでいる女性たちの声や表情を記録することはめったにありません。私のラジオ番組は、このギャップを埋めています。この番組はディープ・サウス・ウォッチのウェブサイトとリンクされていて、紛争下にある女性たちの声を伝えています。番組を制作するために、地域に住む女性たちにどうすれば平和をもたらすことができるかを考えるためのトレーニングをしなければなりません。スタッフはボランティアで、働く時間はパートタイムです。畑などで働き、ラジオ局で仕事をした後は家族の世話をする普通の女性たちです。その日取り上げる問題、例えば暴力が勃発した時の女性たちの安全保障について議論した後、みんなはマイクロホンを手にして、そのテーマについて女性たちの意見を集めてきます。
Q:何が達成できましたか?
S:このラジオ放送は、安全を脅かされている女性たちの間で人気があります。私たちのメディアは女性たちが自分で身を守るためにつながり始めることをめざして、恥ずかしがりやで口数の少ない女性たちの声を記録してきました。このようなネットワークができたのは初めてのことです。人びとの安全保障を育てることは平和構築の重要な一部です。良インタビューアー:地域メディア組織がどういう形で平和に貢献しているかを教えて下さったお二人に感謝します。

(翻訳:越田清和)
平和構築におけるコミュニティ・メディアの役割 Vol.1 [2011年04月22日(Fri)]
笹川平和財団 「平和構築:草の根の視点から」
平和構築におけるコミュニティ・メディアの役割

はじめに
 紛争はメディア(主流、オルタナティブを問わず)にとって、大事なニュースである。
主流の報道機関は、記事やテレビ、ラジオで紛争を取り上げる。コミュニティ・メディア(ラジオや新聞、インターネットなど)は、もっと地域に近い視点で報道し、現場からの情報を提供する。視点が異なっていたとしても、メディアが多くの国において国内外の読者・視聴者に対して情報を提供する主要な機関となっていることを忘れてはならない。したがって、このインタビューで紹介するように、ジャーナリストの役割は、世論を形成し政策決定に影響を与えるという点で重要なのである。信頼でき、正確かつ客観的な情報によってメディアは紛争を助長することも減らすこともできる。このレポートでは、タイ南部における紛争で、平和構築に貢献したいという目的を果たすためにコミュニティ・メディア組織がどうやって紛争を取材・報道しているか、という点に焦点をあてたい。「深南部」と呼ばれることも多いタイ南部は、マレーシア国境付近のパッタニー県とヤラー県、ナラーティワートの3県、およびソンクラー県の4郡である。この地域は独自の文化を持ち、住民の多くはマレー系である。
 この文章では、二つの例を通じてメディアが平和構築において果たす役割を示してみたい。取り上げるのは、インターネット・メディアの「ディープ・サウス・ウォッチ」、ラジオ番組を制作する女性の市民社会組織「犠牲者家族たちの友」である。二つとも、タイ南部の中心都市パッタニ―にある代表的大学、プリンス・オブ・ソンクラー大学との共同事業である。
ムハンマッド=アユブ・パタン氏は、2006年にスタートした「ディープ・サウス・ウォッチ」の編集長。
ソラヤ・ジャムジュリーさんは、パッターニー県での紛争によって被害を受けた地元女性と一緒にラジオ番組を制作している。番組名は「深南部の女性の声」

ディープ・サウス・ウォッチ Deep South Watch.
www.deepsouthwatch.org
プリンス・オブ・ソンクラー大学パッタニー校
タイ南部における平和構築―市民メディアの役割
ソラヤ・ジャムジュリー Soraya Jamjuree
プリンス・オブ・ソンクラー大学 公開・継続教育・広報・宣伝部代表

ムハンマッド=アユブ・パッターン氏(編集長)へのインタビュー
Q:「ディープ・サウス・ウォッチ」の編集長として、平和構築とは何だとお考えですか。ムハンマッド(以下、M):私たちのメディア組織は、タイ南部の紛争に焦点を当て地域の住民と協力しているので、オルタナティブ・メディアと分類されるべきかもしれません。紛争に対しては中立的な関わりをし、反乱軍とタイ軍どちらの暴力行為に対しても明確に反対しています。編集者として言いたいのは、私たちのオンライン・サイトの主要な目的は対話のための活気ある場を提供することにある、ということです。対話は、暴力行使の対極にあるものです。対話の場を広げることは、人びとに重要なシグナルを送ります。そのシグナルとは、平和という同じ目的を達成したい時でも、殺しあうのではなく話し合いによってそれが実現できることを知るということです。
 私の組織の強みは、紛争地域にあるので、自分たちが目撃した暴力をレポートできるということです。衝突があると現場の人たちがそこに出向き記録することで、暴力を監視することもできます。私たちのメディアには、研究者たちとの共同作業によって調査に基づいた専門性が付け加わるという重要な特徴もあります。本を出版することで、私たちの得た知識を活用しています。このような方法によって、人びとのほんとうの声と渇望、平和像を、外部の人たちに伝えているのです。これが、ディープ・サウス・ウォッチが平和構築に果たす役割です。
私たちのプロジェクトは重層的です。インタビューを行ない、紛争についての多様な考えを地域の人たちに知ってもらうための草の根セミナーを開きます。研究者と一緒に調査を行ない、紛争に関するデータベースを作成します。データとして、殺りくと暴力に関する情報とさまざまな和平の提案に対する人びとの反応が集められています。国際機関や中央政府の政策立案者が現場レベルでの紛争を理解するために、私たちのデータを使います。データベースと調査は、研究者と共にセミナーを開くためにも使われます。このセミナーでは、普通の人たちが知識を使って自分の平和をつくることをお手伝いします。今では、このセミナーが人びとの対話を進める場となり、信頼をつくる重要な機会となっています。Q:ディープ・サウス・ウォッチは、どうやって平和構築を達成していますか?
M:私はウェブサイトを人びとのメディアとして始めました。ウェブサイトは暴力を止めるためのコミュニティの考えを反映したものでなければならず、地域の人びとにとって魅力あるものでなければならない、ということです。自分たちで平和をつくるのは地域の人たちなのですから。これを正しく行なうために、人びとに必要なのはいろいろな問題に関する信頼できる情報です。こうした知識を獲得することによって、人びとはコミュニティに根差した強固で効果的な提案を作りあげることができるのです。
 そのために私たちのウェブサイトは研究者と密接につながっています。研究者は自分たちで調査を進め、政府の政策を分析する人たちです。ウェブサイトで、その調査を公開します。草の根セミナーで調査についての議論を深めます。こうしたプロセスによって人びとは重要な洞察力と知識を得ていくのです。
Q:あなたたちの情報にする人びとの反応は?
M:タイ南部では人口の80%がイスラム教徒、残りは仏教徒です。タイ語が高揚のため、マレー語は家庭か私立学校でしか話されません。普通の人たちが暴力のない社会で生きられない限り、平和構築は実現しません。お互いが話しあう安全な場所を創りだした時にのみ、それが実現できるのです。私たちの努力(論文もセミナーも)は、暴力を使わずにこれを実現するためのより深い知識を与えてきました。一例として、タイ南部の自治という問題を挙げてみましょう。数年間まで、公の場で自治について話すことはタブーでした。分離主義と暴力に結びついていたからです。しかし、民族集団間の信頼を構築するためには、この状況は変わらねばならないと考えました。そこで、ディープ・サウス・ウォッチは、地方分権に関する議論を始め、このテーマに関する公の論議の場を作り出しました。ディープ・サウス・ウォッチは、自治という問題に関する多様な意見を伝える独自のレポートと分析を出版し始めました。その中には、タイ南部における地方分権は分離主義につながるものではないというメッセージを示す新たな地方分権のモデルも含まれていました。こうして地域住民の中に、それまでタブーだった自治というテーマについて議論し、民族集団間の協力に向かう考えに結びつけるための場ができたのです。昨年(2009年)は40回ほどこうした場を持ちました。研究者や一般の人たち、軍関係者、仏教の専門家と僧侶などが参加しました。そこでの議論は怒りや暴力を生みださず、非常に実り多いものでした。専門家との密接な共同作業があったからこそ、この成果があがったという点が重要です。

(翻訳:越田清和)
Peace building experiences in Indonesia and Japan (Vol.3) [2011年04月22日(Fri)]
(continued fron Vol.2)

Interview with Japanese parliamentarian Naoto Sakaguchi, advo-
cator for peace in the Chittagong Hill Tract conflict, Bangladesh.
Sakaguchi, member of the Democrat Party of Japan, is one of the
few Japanese politicians to play an active role in Asian conflicts.

Introduction
The Chittagon Hill Tract mountain belt borders Bangladesh, India,
Burma and Yunnan province of China. Its rugged terrain is home
to many indigenous people, each with their unique culture. The
Jummas people live along the mountain border of Bangladesh
with Burma and India. They comprise around thirteen ethnic
groups living in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Jumma means “shifting
cultivator” in the native language. Their political demand is not
for separatism but for “official recognition as indigenous peoples
of Bangladesh and a certain amount of autonomy congruous with
their culture.” They must coexist with majority population are
the Bengali who are of Muslim faith. Bangladesh has a popula-
tion of 140 million and is one of the poorest country’s in the
world. Land is scarce and a large part is covered by water
causing massive floods annually. Overall, there is little infor-
mation about the Jumma and the violation of their human
rights in Bangladesh that treats these people as primitive
tribes who live in the mountains. Government policy has led to
large number of Bengalis into the Chittagong hill areas under
a settlers program leading to endless conflicts over ownership
of land with the Jumma. The Chittagong Peace Accord peace
accord was signed in 1997 which recognized long-standing
political demands of the Jumma such as constitutional recogni-
tion of their rights and withdrawal of settlers. But the conflict
has escalated into mutual killings and abductions with some
political groups among the Jumma aiming for full autonomy
rather than implementation of a peace accord.


Q. What was the underlying reason for your interest in the
Chittagong conflict?

Sakaguchi: My initiation into the Chittagong was quite simple—a
former student of mine had visited the region and had become
involved with bringing peace to the people there. When she
spoke to me of her experience, I became very interested myself.
I had a strong urge to contribute to peace building as a politician
and individual.
So I decided to visit and learn more and accompanied an Japa-
nese active non-governmental organization, the Jumma Net.
I wanted to meet the indigenous people and became the first
Japanese Diet person to visit Chittagong. There I learnt first
hand the aspirations of the local people who have their own
distinct culture and customs. Their land is rich in nature and
their harvests of special spices and herbs and tradition of weav-
ing makes it a beautiful destination for eco tourism especially
that could bring them important finances for development. The
other aspect of my visit was obviously to understand their
suffering from discrimination from the majority race of the country
which had led to poorer education levels, less employement
opportunities and poor standards of living in the region.

Q. How do you think you can contribute to peace building as a
Japanese politician?
Sakaguchi: An important development from my visit to Chittagong
was to bring the conflict to the Diet in Japan where it was dis-
cussed. I did this to bring pressure on the Japanese government
that is one of the largest contributor of aid to the Bangladesh
government. The issue of human rights protection must be
incorporated in Japanese overseas assistance and it was
important the government show their solidarity with the ethnic
groups who were pushed out of their ancestral land. I have also
been involved in monitoring elections to ensure fair results
in countries with conflicts in the region which has taken me
to Sri Lanka, Cambodia, East Timor and Afghanistan. I believe
the presence of a Japanese politician sends a strong message
to the people and governments in those countries to know
that the rights of the people must be protected.

Q What is your concept of peace?
Sakaguchi: Peace building in post conflict societies must be
geared to help affected populations to be able to find normal
lives.This can be achieved from different standpoints—
rebuilding damaged infrastructure, creating livelihoods, security,
and helping survivors to get over trauma through education,
medical and mental support to foster reconciliation with their
enemies. Japan, with its own postwar experience, technology and
funds, can lead the way in this process.

Thank you for speaking with us.



Peace building experiences in Indonesia and Japan (Vol. 2) [2011年04月22日(Fri)]
(continued from Vol.1 )

Q. What are some tips for success that you can share with other
peace builders?
Dadang. BakuBae usually conducts meetings outside the conflict
areas. This is why we met in Jakarta or other cities. During these
gatherings the challenge is to steer discussions away from the
vested agendas among the participants for that can sway the
crux of our message, which was to stop the fighting. For instance,
ameeting with lawyers representing both religions, led to each
side accusing the other for the killings. The mood was to justify
the killings rather than look for ways to foster forgiveness by end-
ing the violence. Still we persevered— the meeting continued
over four days. The best result was when the two sides finally
decided to work together and formed an organization called Legal
Aid to help the survivors. The secret to successful meetings with
religious groups depends on being able to invite the moderates
on both sides. This allows discussions to focus on peace making.
Another key to success is to focus on the future of the
community and to steer away from the ongoing violence. This
makes the participants see beyond blame.
Other tips we have learned is to push the concept of learning
from tradition by bringing up the way our ancestors lived
together led by their king who practiced respect for religion.
BakuBae also analyzes government policies and illustrate
how the state has systematically ignored the wisdom of
traditional knowledge causing the breakdown of harmony in
the community. Our experience confirms such sessions raises
objectivity and deepens the understanding of peace that cuts
across religious division.

Q. How did you manage to maintain the sustainability of BakuBae?
Dadang: For a start, foreign funding played an important role to
conduct our meetings, workshops and surveys that we needed to
have to prepare for the next step. But apart from funding the
process was to take peace building through all its stages. As
the community meetings progressed we still faced ongoing splits
between Christians and Muslims so we could not give-up. Our
meetings began to look into other aspects of maintaining peace
such as changing the infrastructure on the Ambon islands that
has physically separated the two communities based on their
religious differences. We also worked on sensitive issues as
religious symbols that were actually working against religious
spirituality that are based on the values of humanity transcend-
ing suface objects. In 2002 we even held a workshop for the
kings in Ambon where eight kings from Muslim communities
participated with eight kings from the Christian side. They reflect-
ed themselves on their role indesigning the future of Muluku and
agreed to be proactive in the post conflict era. We also facili-
tated meetings and workshops on the building of demolished
buildings and schools as well as unemployment. Workshops on
development of learning and teaching processes that inserted
Mollucan cultures without discrimination also became an inte-
gral part of our peace building. So, you can see the BakuBae
community movement covers peace building comprehensively
based on the commitment to people`s participation.

Thank you for sharing your inspiring work under the BakuBae
concept.

(continued to Vol. 3)
Peace building experiences in Indonesia and Japan [2011年04月22日(Fri)]
Peace building experiences in Indonesia and Japan—chatting
with grass –root experts and the political level.

Bakubae—the story of a community based movement for peace
and reconciliation in the Ambon/Maluku conflict, Indonesia

Interview with Dadang Trisasongko, attorney and peace builder in
the Ambon conflict... Advisor to the Partnership for Governance
Reform. Jakarta. Indonesiawww. kemitraan.or.id

Introduction.
The island of Ambon in the Indonesian archipelago, was torn
apart when a conflict erupted in 1999 between the two main
religious groups, Christian Protestant and Muslim.. Ironically,
the origin of the conflict began quite simply—a fight between
youth in the local market—but its downward trajectory
engulfed the island and its surrounding inlands. The brutal
violence—killings, rape and burning—from January to April
1999 and later in June between neighbor to neighbor
belonging to the two religious groups that included the southern
Muluku province.. Many refugees, mostly Muslim, fled the fighting
to South Sulawesi. Analysts, such as Dadang, point to tinder box
local conditions that spawned the communal violence in Ambon.
In this interview, Dadang, the committed peace builder, talks
about how the conflict was triggered not just by pure bigotry
or religious strife but has also its root causes in discri-
minatory state policies, long-term corruption and interference
by the central government in societies that elite national
politicians with their own stakes, do not even attempt to under-
stand. In Ambon, for example, employment among the urban
population is heavily dependent on the civil service and contract
work for the government, a system that calls for the “right
connections” with influential parliamentarians, eading to rivalry
and frustration between the communities.
Dadang is a founder member of the BakuBae movement that
sprang up as a grass-root initiative to bring peace when the au-
thorities failed. The movement is based on the concept of help-
ing society to resolve their disputes in peaceful ways. BakuBae
employs peace building measures for religious leaders, conflict
victims and conflict doers in the local community who hold
meetings to discuss violence and are guided by a variety of facili-
tators.

Q. When did you form the BakuBae movement and what does it
mean?
Dadang: BakuBae means, literally, “be on good terms with each
other” and was set-up to stop the violence in Mollucan society
that is Ambon and its surrounding inlands. The ultimate aim is
gaining peace by being aware of the spirit of peace in the
community. Fundamentally, the movement empowers people to
manage conflict by identifying unfair social systems that cause’s
violence and then eliminating them. Six months after the Ambon
conflict, we established the BakuBae with people—scholars,
lawyers, journalists, youth and religious leaders-- who wanted to
do something to stop the violence. Peace building through Baku
Bae must be local initiatives and involve both religious sides—
Christians and Muslims. The first BakuBae meeting was conduct-
ed when we brought five community leaders from both religions
to sit together in Jakarta. The group represented the local fight-
ers, churches, mosques, and community organizations and they
spent ten days with facilitators. Our aim was to clarify the conflict
by putting on the table such issues as identifying the actual the
predators and reasons for people are attacking each other. The
meeting discussed unfair social and economic policies as the
root causes and ended in an agreement or an action plan that we
took to the Indonesian President who had already demonstrated,
by then, that he was incapable of controlling the violence. We
then proceed to carry out our own BakuBae meetings between
affected communities with the firm belief that peace and
harmony must originate from the voices of victims.

Q. Such a process must have been extremely difficult given the
bitterness of the conflict that was still simmering between the
people. Can you give us some examples of breakthrough?
Dadang: Yes, the reconciliation process is always difficult and
takes time but this challenge that must be dealt with if there is
to be lasting peace. The BakuBe process was conducted several
years starting with the immediate need to end violence, then
building people`s capacity to understand the conflict, negotiation
and finally empowerment through small economic activities and
reconstruction which is still going on this year.
Our first meetings made sure to include the refugees who had
fled the violence. Their experiences were crucial in the peace
building process based on the goals of BakuBae which is to
forgive and build solidarity. Our meetings were small and held at
diverse points in Ambon. The meetings invited affected women
as well. A key breakthrough in these meetings was when we guid-
ed discussions on peace as benefiting the children. We talked of
how ending violence can pave the way for schools to remain open
to help children to be better educated, maintain security and also
to protect religious values and customs. These arguments made
sense to the local communities especially as Ambon is still a
rural society and people respect their cultural values deeply.
Youth meetings were held separately to foster closer commu-
nication between the same age groups that belonged to different
religions.
In the end, we distributed agreements that were signed by the
participants after they has discussed and identified their own
peace building programs. Journalist meetings were also held to
share with them information that showed the two sides of
violence or clarify what they needed. These meetings were also
extended to the mainstream media in Jakarta because we
needed their support for our meetings and goals. Of course,
sometimes we ran into trouble when gangs attacked us in the
conflict areas because they suspected out intentions.
“Art as a catalyst in building reconciliation-building peace in war-torn Sri Lanka [2011年04月18日(Mon)]
(continued from vol. 1)

Q. What exactly was the project?

Jayawardene. We began approaching the local government in
Trincomalee to help us select the public schools that most need-
ed a course in modern art education. It was important that we
work closely with the local government officials because we
needed their support to develop a sustainable ethnic integration
message. A total of 16 teachers were selected and they were
equally divided between the Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim
ethnicities. There were four females as well. The only criteria
we gave the education department of the local government
was that the teachers must be open to new ideas because our
objective was not only to teach about modern art but also to
change their attitudes about each other and develop trust
between them which is the core message of art. There were a
total of three workshops that were carried out in different areas
of the country—we took the group of teachers out of
Trincomalee for the first two workshops and then the last one
was held as a three-day camp back in the town. We started our
sessions at 9 am and finished off for the day at 9pm. The first
sessions covered such subjects as art history, modern art
paintings and teaching skills and they visited museums and
historical sites where we pointed out to them how various for-
eign influences including Tamil art from Southern India had
nurtured the origins of Sri Lankan art and culture. After dinner,
our discussions focused on the problems the teachers had to
grapple in their classrooms. The issues they spoke about were
similar mainly because teachers in rural public schools are not
trained in the arts in comparison to their counterparts in the big
cities. This built a platform of solidarity between them paving the
way for another important aspect of the workshop which was to
ask them to share their experiences as teachers. They began to
slowly open-up and talk about the issues they faced in their
schools which was for reach of them a rare insight into the
problems the minority Tamil schools were facing and the gap that
existed in the rural schools that are divided between the eth-
nicities. The majority Sinhala teachers understood the
discrimination their Tamil and Muslim colleagues faced when
the teachers began to talk about the lack of art tools in their
schools and the numerous hardships they faced. The Tamil and
Muslim teachers talked about having to close their schools
regularly when they were forced to flee to safety, which affected
their students badly. As the days went by, slowly the group began
to discuss among themselves how they can rectify the situation
and help each other.

Q. What was the outcome towards peace from the art project?

Jayawardene. The final object of the workshops was a joint exhi-
bition on modern art but the important point was that the parti-
cipants decided to hold the exhibition in ancient Hindu temple in
Trincomalee. This was a landmark in our goal to build tolerance
and harmony among the people. By holding the exhibition in a
religious place where the Tamil people worship, the group show-
ed they needed to respect the wishes of the minorities rather
than the majority which was the norm up to now. They had formed
a strong bond. Another important point they raised at the end
was to keep working together in a team. A Sinhala teacher took
the art work made by a Tamil teacher to display in his school
where the majority of students and their parents have never had
interaction with the Tamil speaking population. Even Sinhala
Buddhist monks visited our modern art exhibition and partici-
pated in our discussions about the need to help each other.

Q. Do you think art, which is usually considered as a “soft”
peace building exercise, works better in post conflict society?

Jayawardene. I think a key reason why we were successful is
because we did not directly use the conflict as a way of talking
about ethnic integration. By using the theme of modern art appre-
ciation and skills building, we avoided bringing up topics of war
such as bloodied or dead corpses, rape or torture. Instead we
took up subjects of art such as nude or pregnant figures, broken
chairs or simple trees and nature and the notion of talking about
taboo topics against tradition and the value of freedom of
thought which are all modern art concepts. In this way, we
deliberately avoided the issue of blame which would have made
the participants uncomfortable and could have contributed to
distrust instead of creating at atmosphere of generosity and
acceptance which are important to nurture discussion. Thus, I
would say with confidence, that arts if it can be used strategical-
ly, can become an intense tool to bring sustainable peace
building.

Q. yes. This is very useful. Thank you for talking and sharing this
profound experience with us.

“Art as a catalyst in building reconciliation-building peace in war-torn Sri Lanka. [2011年04月18日(Mon)]
“Art as a catalyst in building reconciliation-building peace in
war-torn Sri Lanka.

The Vibhavi Arts Academy is a leading arts academy in Sri Lanka
that has earned respect for pioneering art education in the local
Sinhala language for the public. In 2010 the academy developed a
unique post conflict arts-based project that is described as a
“facilitator” in the process of peace-building. The project targeted
an ethnically diverse group of art teachers in public schools in
Trincomalee port city located in the north east part of the island.
The one-year project was created to teach public school teachers
working in the post conflict community the appreciation of mod-
ern art which proved to be a strategy to disseminate messages
of peace and harmony. The selection of Trincomlaee as the main
location for the Vibhavi pilot project was because of the local
diverse ethnic population in the area. Post conflict peace build-
ing focused on ethnic integration as a priority in the town which
is home to a fast growing population of 130,000 people who are
divided equally between the majority Sinhala, and minority Tamil
and Muslim communities.
The Sri Lankan ethnic war was fought between the government
military forces and the now defunct Liberation Tamil Tigers Eelam
(LTTE) rebel group and created suffering and destruction mostly in
the north and east of the island. The war ended in May 2009 with
the defeat of the LTTE. Local peace movements are active in bring-
ing the divided communities together. Vibhavi meaning in Sanskrit,
"the untapped energy of healing", was established in 1993. The
academy is a non-governmental organization that has pioneered
the expansion of art in the lives of the ordinary people.
We speak with Shyama Jayawardene, an artist and the coordi-
nator of the Vibhavi program who developed the concept and
art work in this reconciliation project.

Q. Tell us how you developed the concept of teaching modern art
to local teachers with the goal of bringing ethnic reconciliation.

Jayawardene. War has touched the lives of every Sri Lankan
because the conflict has spanned over thirty years. The hardest
hit are the Tamil people living in the north and east where most
of the fighting took place. The populations living here have seen
their family members killed and homes destroyed over several
generations. When the war was officially over in May 2009, I was
looking for a way to contribute to the next big challenge that
faced Sri Lanka—post conflict reconciliation. I had to be care-
ful because it is not easy to talk about reconciliation or the
concept of forgiving each other soon after a long bitter conflict.
Wounds are still raw and people from the different ethnicities
who have been affected by the war do not trust each other and
so are not ready to just forget the past just because the bombs
have stopped falling. So it was very important to start the recon-
ciliation process in a "gently" way, by which I mean the goal of
bringing them together must not be thrust down their throats.

Q. so how did you achieve this?

Jayawardene. I was reading the newspapers one day and there
was a short article written by a local arts expert who wrote
disparagingly about modern art. Basically what he was saying
was that modern art was a threat to local traditions and so was
not necessary to be taught to the local people. As Vibhavi is an
arts academy I decided this kind of thinking could be an apt
subject that we can tackle. I realized the need to challenge this
opinion and we could start by launching a program where
modern art appreciation can be talk to art teachers in rural
schools. Such an approach serves two purposes—the first
is obvious which is to bring new skills to art teachers. But the
second goal is more subtle. Based on the perception that art is
a medium to communicate the human experience I decided that
by teaching modern art techniques I could nurture a group of
teachers from diverse ethnic groups to work together. Through
close teamwork with the goal of learning modern art they would
understand for themselves how they can benefit by being
together. They would realize for the first time theadvantage of
putting their past intercommunal differences aside.
Learning from other conflicts Vol.2 [2011年04月18日(Mon)]
(continued from vol. 1)

Q. Apart from work, please tell us how does visiting conflicts
areas actually help the peace builder on a personal basis.
Soraya. I must tell you that my participation in the AMARC interna-
tional conference helped to boost my confidence. When I had to
make a presentation in front of a large audience, which was my
first such experience, I practiced repeatedly to be able to speak
in English, another important step in my life work. I returned with
a lot of hope and willingness to work harder for peace. You know,
peace builders who are stationed on the ground and work with
the very local community do not have the opportunities to travel
out of their areas as much as they would like. This has to
change. Grass root peace builders are the people who know the
reality of conflicts and how they affect the community. Their
voices should be heard internationally so that the people who
wage war understand the damage that it causes to ordinary
people. The other side of helping local peace builders to travel
to other conflicts is to give them access to more information.
This kind of exchange will help them to work in new ways at
home and overcome challenges at home. I returned from the
AMARC conference with a good network with other women-led
radios which was my object. I was also greatly encouraged by
courage displayed by the women speakers. They were strong in
character and spoke about how they speak out their opinions
on the community radio. I was inspired to start my own civic
women’s radio network in the Deep South. This will empower
women and make the community radio a base to talk of the
hidden issues such as violence against them.

Experience Two
Tengku Arifin. I have been a radio reporter, in both mainstream
and community, for more than a decade. Being able to join the
AMARC conference was an important learning experience for me.
The exposure to an efficient international community of radios
taught me the importance of having an international appeal. In
Southern Thailand we are caught up with our own conflict and
have do not have much time to analyze and learn from other
conflicts. This situation must be improved. By going to other
conflict areas or learning about them, we can compare and ana-
lyze our own conflict through objective lenses. Meeting other
peace makers is also time to share your own opinion with them.
The dialogue with them is important. My exchange with peace
makers from Aceh was satisfactory because we discussed the
issues of underground resistance against the politics of our
countries. I understood the importance of working to reach a
long-term solution by incorporating every group in peace making.

Experience Three
Arida Samoh, 24, reporter, Aman News Center, is a participant in
the program to build people-to people solidarity in Peace
Building in Southern Thailand and Mindanao. He was one of five
peace makers from Southern Thailand who were sponsored by
the Saskawa Peace Foundation to join the three month internship
project that is under the direction of the Initiatives for
International Dialogue organization based in Davao, Mindanao,
Philippines. Under the internship program they will join English
training, introductory course to conflict and peace building in
Mindanao as well as field visits and networking activities. The
program is implemented through networking activities, study and
field visits.

Q. What are a few of the most memorable exchanges you have
experienced with people working on peace building in Mindanao?
For a start I learned and analyzed myself the intricacies of the
Mindanao conflict and realized there were many tribal ethnicities
that have their own aspirations in comparison with Southern
Thailand which has only two ethnicities—the Thai Muslim
majority and Buddhist minority. The less groups involved could
mean that is perhaps it is easier to look for a resolution to the
conflict. I also learned through this exchange program that civil
societies that work on peace are recognized in society as impor-
tant players in the peace building. This situation is not as
apparent in our country. The work of grass-root organizations is
important to spread the message of peace. I will travel to
northern Thailand and meet with the Buddhist population in
that area to teach and discuss with them the problems faced by
the Muslims in the south. It is important to build bridges not only
between the conflicts in South East Asia but also within the
country.

Experience Four
Shareef Sa-id. 23, student. Student Federation of Southern Thai-
land. I learned the strength of the Muslim people's identity in
Mindanao that is represented strongly in their local organizations.
When I return to Pattani, in southern Thailand, I will share the
importance of empowering young people with an identity that I
believe can be learned from listening to the older generation.
This activity is to raise public awareness for the need to build
solidarity which then forms a strong base to work towards non-
violence. This is what I learned from the peace activities in
Mindanao.

Thank you very much for sharing your views with our site.

Learning from other conflicts [2011年04月18日(Mon)]
Learning from other conflicts-- strengthening people-to-people
solidarity for peace.

The lessons learned by peace builders from their counterparts in
other conflict areas through the exchange of opinions and sharing
of experiences on the ground are creating networking across
borders. Armed with new ideas, stories, and friends in other
countries, the peace builders return with stronger commitment
to incorporate at home what they have learned. Exchanges
between people can be in the form of international forums, joint
advocacy, campaigns, learning and sharing lessons and intern-
ships.

Experience One
Soraya Jumjuree, head of the womens peace building community
radio, Friends of the Victimized Families Groups, based in Yala
province, a conflict area in Southern Thailand where there is an
ongoing conflict between the Muslim and Buddhist Thai popula-
tion.
She visited Buenos Aires in Argentina in November 2010 to
participate in the World Association of Community Radio (AMARC)
conference. Her visit was sponsored by the Sasakawa Peace
Foundation. Accompanying her to the conference was Arifin
Tenguku Cik, freelance radio broadcaster for several radio sta-
tions including 10.5 FM also based in Yala. He is also the
President of Islamic Cultural Foundation of Southern Thailand.

Q. Tell us what is so special about visiting and meeting people in
other conflicts.
Soraya. After decades of working on peace with affected women
in Southern Thailand, I got my first opportunity to travel abroad
last year. My visit to Rio in DATE was a landmark in my work for it
gave me the opportunity to meet many radio stations from differ-
ent countries. I was fascinated when I met people who ran radio
stations in East Timor. I learned from them that their community
radios played an active role in peace building. In particular I
learned how radio can address ideas from one community and
shared with other communities. In East Timor there are local
radio stations working to bring ideas across fifty different
communities and they did this by building a radio community
network. This realization was very exciting and I want to replicate
it in my area. The idea of a network to develop solidarity is very
useful for Southern Thailand where we have hundreds of
established community radios but we also face various issues in
the development. A network will help the radio stations to learn
more from each other.
In 2010 I traveled to Japan and also learned the same thing. My
visit to Kobe gave me the opportunity to discuss the role of radio
during disasters and brought me new ideas. I learned how FM
Wai Wai (http://www.tcc117.org/fmyy/en/index.html) steadily aired
broadcasts to the community during the Kobe earthquake in 2004
and played a crucial role to help people to evacuate to safety,
find their loved ones and keep up their spirits. The radio station
also broadcast disaster relief instructions in the languages of the
different minorities living in Kobe because they did not speak
Japanese. The radio can save lives in this way. I took all these
ideas back home and I am proud to report that I used this lesson
to develop a new disaster program on my own community radio
which worked wonderfully during last October's devastating
floods in Southern Thailand. My radio broadcasters worked with
the leading radio and online news organization, Deep South
Watch, which became an information centre during the crisis.
We worked together to issue reports to mainstream radio about
the affected villages and also to answer questions and provide
help in Malayu language to the local people. We were so suc-
cessful in drawing public awareness to the plight of flood
affected communities through radio reports and photo exhibi-
tions taken by us that we raised awareness in Bangkok where
the mainstream press had not bothered to focus on our situation.
A major achievement for us was on November 14th, when
Thailand's deputy prime minister visited the village Datuk,
located in Pattani province to see for himself the damage
the floods had caused. This really brought attention to our
problems.