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Ocean Jigsaw Puzzle Piece Series - Use of the Ocean and the Right to Operate Fisheries [2019年05月22日(Wed)]

This blog post was originally uploaded in
Japanese to OPRI's blog
on October 31, 2018.

---

On October 24, 2018, the Kagoshima District Court
made a decision on a dispute in connection with the
development of Mageshima Island in Kagoshima
Prefecture, the proposed relocation site for Field
Carrier Landing Practice (FCLP) of U.S. carrier-based
aircraft. According to a news report, fishermen filed
lawsuits alleging that sand and soil ran into the
ocean due to deforestation of Mageshima Island and
damaged their rights to operate fisheries. They
requested that the prefecture order the development
company to restore the fishing grounds, but the
Kagoshima District Court dismissed the plaintiff’s
claim (Nishinippon Shimbun [October 24, 2018]).

This short essay uses the term, “right to operate
fisheries” to mean an individual right to conduct
fishing activities to make a living. On the other hand,
the term “fishing right” is generally understood in
Japan under the Fisheries Act as the right of a
Fisheries Cooperative Association to allow members
to operate fisheries within its boundaries. However,
internationally, there are cases in which the right is
not given per sea area but per type of fish to
individual fishing boats to catch a certain amount of
fish. (This system is also used in Japan for certain
types of fish.) There is a view that the right to
operate fisheries falls under the category of human
rights under the Japanese constitution and under
international law as freedom of occupation choice.
What was alleged by the plaintiff in the above lawsuit
in connection with the development of Mageshima
Island was violation of the right to operate fisheries,
which each fisherman should have under the Forest
Act. (They alleged that the Forest Act should
guarantee the property rights of the residents who
live near the development area if there is an outflow
of sand and soil, landslides or natural disasters such
as floods due to forestry development.) The right to
operate fisheries of an individual can be protected,
directly or indirectly through various laws under the
Japanese legal system.

Regarding ocean use, when problems arise in
connection with the right to operate fisheries, they
can be due to large-scale development activities as
in the case of Mageshima Island or between
fishermen or between fishermen and their Fisheries
Cooperative Association. In Japan, there is a famous
case titled “Beach Riot Lawsuit” (Hama-no-ikki-
sosho), in which permission granted by the
administration of Iwate Prefecture became a problem
when they allowed fixed-net salmon fishing only to
the members of Fisheries Cooperative Associations
and influential individuals living in a coastal area and
did not allow small-scale fishermen to catch salmon.
The UN Human Rights Committee decided that
Iceland’s unfair allocation of individual transferable
quotas (ITQs)−a transferrable right to catch a
certain amount of fish−is a violation of the non-
discrimination principle stipulated in Article 26 of the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The judgment of the latter in particular includes
points which should be considered in Japan, where
the introduction of ITQs have in recent years been
the subject of much discussion.

Professor Kase, of Teikyo University, a specialist in
Fishery Economics, pointed out that the “two-
dimensional adjustment” is important in relation to
the use of the ocean. There can be a situation such
that, “if there is a fishing net attached to the sea
floor, called sashiami, you cannot use a trawl net in
that area. You have permission to catch fish with a
trawl net, but if someone else has permission to use
sashiami in the same area, you are not allowed to
operate fisheries in the area.” As mentioned above,
as the entities which exercise specific fishing rights
under the Fisheries Act, Fisheries Cooperative
Associations control their members’ use of such
rights. They also conduct negotiations with the
government and companies specializing in farming
and renewable energy. The expansion of fishing
rights is currently under review, but if it does
happen, there is a possibility that maintaining order
regarding the use of coastal areas could become
more difficult. Fisheries Cooperative Associations
need to continue to work as controllers of the use of
the ocean. On the other hand, recent cases suggest
the importance of considering ways to protect the
right to operate fisheries of individual fishermen,
together with the fishing rights of Fisheries
Cooperative Associations, as these rights are not
protected by ownership, unlike agricultural farmers.
This is also a task for achieving the SDG14 (14.b)
goal
, to "provide access for small-scale artisanal
fishers to marine resources and markets."

Murakami 1.jpg
An offshore wind turbine operating along Fukuejima
Island in Nagasaki Prefecture.
It also functions as an active fishing location.
(Source: Goto City Hall)

Yuhei Murakami,
Research Fellow

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Latest news - Courtesy Visit by H.E. Ms. Lilja Alfreðsdóttir, Minister of Education, Science and Culture of Iceland [2019年05月20日(Mon)]

President Atsushi Sunami of the Ocean Policy
Research Institute of the Sasakawa Peace
Foundation (OPRI-SPF) received a courtesy visit from
H.E. Ms. Lilja Alfreðsdóttir, Minister of Education,
Science and Culture of Iceland, on May 15, 2019.

In the discussions, the two sides recognized the
importance of promoting cooperation for Arctic
policy and scientific research that reflects the
strengths of Japan and Iceland, and exchanged
information regarding the Arctic Science Ministerial
Meeting and Arctic Circle Regional Forum expected
to be held in Japan in 2020, discussing future plans
for these meetings. Furthermore, both sides shared
the view to continue close relations between
OPRI-SPF and Iceland regarding Arctic policy
research.

OPRI-SPF will continue its research activities on the
Arctic region in an effort to contribute to the further
advancement of Japan’s Arctic policies.

Iceland 5.15 1.png
H.E. Ms. Lilja Alfreðsdóttir, Minister of Education,
Science and Culture of Iceland (center)

Iceland 5.15 2.png
View of the discussions

Iceland 5.15 3.png
OPRI-SPF President Atsushi Sunami (left) and
H.E. Ms. Lilja Alfreðsdóttir, Minister of Education,
Science and Culture of Iceland

For more information on OPRI-SPF's research
activities regarding the Arctic region, please
see here.

Posted by OPRI at 14:00 | この記事のURL | コメント(0)
Latest news - OPRI-SPF Participates in the Arctic Circle China Forum [2019年05月16日(Thu)]

President Atsushi Sunami and researchers from the
Ocean Policy Research Institute of the Sasakawa
Peace Foundation (OPRI-SPF) participated in the
Arctic Circle China Forum held in Shanghai, China,
from May 10-11, 2019.

For more information, please access the article
from the below link.

OPRI-SPF Participates in the Arctic Circle
China Forum


Arctic Circle 2.jpg
OPRI-SPF President Atsushi Sunami delivers a
speech titled "Japan's Contributions to the
Sustainable Development of the Arctic and OPRI's
Relevant Efforts" during the "Arctic Science and
Innovation" plenary session of the Arctic Circle
China Forum

Posted by OPRI at 10:00 | この記事のURL | コメント(0)
Ocean Jigsaw Puzzle Piece Series - Establishing a Sea Grant Project in Japan (2) [2019年04月24日(Wed)]

This blog post was originally uploaded in
Japanese to OPRI's blog
on September 26, 2018.

---

Following my last article, here I would like to
continue to discuss whether we can establish a
similar program in Japan to the Sea Grant Programs
implemented in the United States, while introducing
the proposal created by the Japan Society of Ocean
Policy’s Research Group, “Toward the Revitalization
of Coastal Regions through the Use of an Ocean
Policy Approach” (led by Jota Kanda, professor of
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology;
the author is also a member) in June 2018.

1. Sea Grant Programs in the United States
In my last article, I introduced an outline of
programs called “Sea Grants.” Sea Grant Programs
(SGPs) have been implemented by universities for
more than fifty years in the coastal communities of
the United States. In order to see how they are
doing, I attended the Sea Grant Week held in
Portland, Oregon this month (September 2018), a
biannual meeting for scientists who are involved
with SGPs in various locations of the U.S.

I attended the opening ceremony on 18 September
and the meeting the day before. The power created
by the programs, which have been in place for more
than fifty years, was palpable. There are many
scientists specializing in ocean studies in universities
of the various states, and they are all working
together with passion to solve local ocean and
coastal issues using SGPs. A network which
connects activities in each state is functioning well.
I realized that it would not be easy to accomplish
something comparable over a short span of time.

Looking into the details of their activities, I found
that matters such as obtaining marine observation
data for fisheries, technological development of
farming and research of coastal disaster prevention
are conducted under SGPs in the U.S. In Japan,
similar activities are basically funded and
implemented at the government level. This means
that within SGPs, a system focused on functions
which do not require large budgets −such as
establishing a network to share know-how of each
area, revitalizing regions by collaborating with local
industries or promoting regional ocean education−
might also be possible in Japan.

角田1.png
Opening ceremony of Sea Grant Week
(photographed by the author)

2. Extending Sea Grants to Coastal Areas in Japan
The research group at the Japan Society of Ocean
Policy(JSOP) began a review in 2016 to see
whether we could establish a similar program in
Japan to the Sea Grant Programs implemented in
the United States. The group reviewed trends
within and outside Japan and the willingness of
Japanese universities and research institutions to
assist with such a program. They also conducted
a presentation at the JSOP’s annual conference in
December 2017. Moreover, the group formulated
the “Proposals on the Revitalization of Coastal
Areas using Experience in Marine Science” in June
2018, which aims to initiate a new science-based
industry-academia-government-private citizen
collaboration.

The most difficult part of the proposals was how
to logically explain the reason for “why we need
a system specifically for ocean and coastal areas.”
We summarized the needs and characteristics as
follows:

Diversifying needs:
Fisheries, offshore wind turbines, tourism and
leisure
Disaster prevention, environmental conservation
and restoration,
effects of global warming, countermeasures for
suspicious ships, etc.

Depopulation and aging: Deterioration of coastal
management,
remote islands becoming uninhabited, etc.

Labor required and difficulties:
Specific knowledge of ocean and coastal areas,
infrastructure such as ships and ports,
vertical division of universities and local public
organizations

The proposals pointed out that optimized
management with the collaboration and
comprehensive coordination between different
entities would be required in ocean and coastal
areas and that the participation of universities on
an organizational level could be a useful way to
solve these issues, as new needs for
countermeasures are being created.
The proposals also pointed out that there are
ideas to overcome difficulties in solving issues in
ocean and coastal areas, with examples such as
Shima City’s “New Sato-umi Creation Plan” where
academia played a central role and accumulated
science-based evidence and achieved cooperative
activities between the government and private
citizens.

Based on these, as specific matters necessary to
be implemented, the proposals suggest the
following three items:

(1) Implementation of pilot projects
Universities and research institutions should play
a central role in solving issues within ocean and
coastal areas by applying a science-based
approach. Cooperation with the relevant entities
within communities should be promoted.

(2) Establishment of liaison offices
These offices should serve as operation centers
with goals to link each regional activity, share
know-how, experience and information and
develop human resources. The offices should
strive to introduce successful cases to be
implemented nationwide.

(3) International collaboration and contribution
Japan should share its experience and support
sustainable development of the Asia-Pacific
region.

The proposals can be downloaded from the
Japan Society of Ocean Policy’s website.
Please read through them if you are interested.
With the cooperation of the members of the
research group, we created an English version
of the proposals (listed below). We handed out
the English version to the participants at the
“Sea Grant Association Meeting” held on
September 17, the day before the opening
ceremony of Sea Grant Week. We also
conducted a presentation on the content of
the proposals.

Maintenance of the economic bases and creation
of added values of ocean and coastal areas,
which were recommended in the proposals,
will contribute to the promotion of a Third Basic
Plan on Ocean Policy and the Sustainable
Developmental Goals (SDGs). We aim to
continue these activities in order to achieve a
new science-based industry-academia-
government-private citizen collaboration.


角田2.png
JSOP Proposals (Front cover of the English version)
※Please click the photo to download the
English version.

Tomohiko Tsunoda
Senior Research Fellow

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Ocean Jigsaw Puzzle Piece Series - Ocean Education at Hachijojima Island of the Izu Islands and Chichijima Island of the Ogasawara Islands [2019年03月27日(Wed)]

This blog post was originally uploaded in
Japanese to OPRI's blog
on September 20, 2018.

---

The Ocean Policy Research Institute of the Sasakawa
Peace Foundation (OPRI-SPF) has been conducting
the “Ocean Education Pioneer School Program,” and
Hachijo Senior High School and Ogasawara Senior
High School, both belonging to the Tokyo
Metropolitan Government Board of Education, are
back to participate in the Regional Development
Section this year. The schools have continued to
keep in touch and organized the “Islands’ Senior
High School Students Summit.” Seven schools from
Izu and Ogasawara Islands participated in the
summit. (I wrote about last year’s summit in my
article, “Ocean Jigsaw Puzzle Piece No. 41,” in
Japanese.) I visited Hachijojima Island and
Chichijima Island between June 21 and 27, 2018,
and interviewed various individuals to get their
opinions about ocean education.

People who had moved to Ogasawara to help
develop the islands from Hachijojima Island were
forced to move back to Hachijojima during World
War II (as mentioned in “Ocean Jigsaw Puzzle Piece
No. 95,” in Japanese). Therefore, an Ogasawara
Goodwill Visit Group is formed each year, and the
group visits Chichijima on board the
Ogasawaramaru. The ship comes to Hachijojima on
June 26, the anniversary of the return to Ogasawara
Islands. Using this occasion, a meeting was planned
between Hachijo Senior High School and Ogasawara
High School, and I joined the group. There is no
direct route between the islands, so it was the only
opportunity to visit both islands from Tokyo. In
addition, this was the 50th anniversary of the return
of the Ogasawara Islands, and I heard that various
events were going to be held on Chichijima Island.
I was very excited!

When I touched down at Hachijojima Island by
plane, I was welcomed by thick clouds and strong
winds. Washed by the Kuroshio Warm Current,
Hachijojima is well-known for strong winds and
frequent rainfalls throughout the year. On the
gourd-shaped island, there are two towering
volcanoes, Hachijo-Fuji on the north end and
Miharayama on the south end. The airport is
located in the valley between the volcanoes, and
fog can easily develop. There are three flights
per day, but the airport is famous for its high
cancellation rates.

At Hachijo Senior High School, a unit to study
ocean-related geography and culture is
integrated into the curriculum for both full-time
and part-time courses. Not many senior high
schools offer “Oceanography” in part-time
coursesbecause students have limited time in
the evenings. In the optional classes for full-time
coursework, all students were studying to obtain
scuba diving licenses. The results of their studies
could be clearly seen in their research on turtles.
The school accepts students from outside the
island. Local students are motivated by a student
who came from Nerima Ward, Tokyo, to study
agriculture.

中村1.png
View from the Osaka Tunnel Lookout located on the
southwestern side of Hachijojima,
looking toward Hachijo-Fuji and smaller islands

中村2.png
Uramigataki Waterfall

Hachijojima Island entered a sister city agreement
with Maui County, Hawaii in 1964. The island is
receiving a lot of attention for their promotion of
senior high school and university cooperation in
ocean education. For both islands, keeping their
fading local languages (a Hachijo dialect and the
Hawaiian language) and traditional culture from
disappearing isa common issue. The Share Heart
Islander Program (SHIP) is a program in Hawaii for
senior high school students from the Izu Islands to
learn and discuss countermeasures to prevent the
loss of culture and language. The program is very
interesting. Short-term study visits are included in
this program, and part of the cost is offset by
crowdfunding among residents of Hachijojima.

In Hawaii, the building of “Nāmāhoe,” a sister
canoe of the outrigger canoe “Hōkūleʻa,” was
completed in September 2016. It is an additional
canoe which can be used for worldwide voyages.
The Hawaiians are negotiating with relevant
individuals to visit Hachijojima during its world
voyage. Remnants of outrigger canoes brought by
immigrants from Hawaii to Ogasawara during
Japan’s isolationism period can be seen in the
Ogasawara Islands and Hachijojima today.
They are half-Japanese, half-Hawaiian outrigger-
style fishing boats (oar-rowing outrigger canoes
on Hachijojima) (*). The visit by Nāmāhoe seems
to be taking a lot longer to organize due to lack
of funding, but we can see the possibility for ocean
education to be connected by the Pacific Ocean
beyond national borders.

中村3.png
Sailing canoe at Chichijima Visitor Center

Two student representatives from Hachijojima Senior
High School and a student from Hawaii joined the
Ogasawara Goodwill Visit Group with their teacher.
They boarded the Ogasawaramaru when it reached
Sokodo Port in the evening. It was a sixteen hour
trip to Chichijima, 700 kilometers south of
Hachijojima. However, the third Ogasawaramaru,
which was launched in 2016, was a large 10,000-
ton ferry, so the inside of the ship was quite
spacious and comfortable. The group members all
gathered on the deck at 8:30 the following morning
and had a memorial service for Seiryumaru
passengers on the ocean near Mukojima, of the
Ogasawara Islands. Mourning the death of the
passengers who died in 1944 by a torpedo attack
during their evacuation, we threw white
chrysanthemums into the water. It was impressive
seeing the flowers floating on the ocean waves
reflecting the beautiful morning sun.

中村4.png
These individuals joined us on Ogasawaramaru
Ship at Sokodo Port

中村5.png
A memorial service for Seiryumaru passengers

Students and teachers from Ogasawara Senior High
School warmly welcomed us at Futami Port on
Chichijima Island. They showed us around the island
and introduced Ogasawara’s nature and culture.
We observed some classes at their school, and I met
their Biology teacher. I went snorkeling along the
coast and saw coral reefs. The Ogasawara Islands
are registered as a world heritage site and are truly
a natural treasure. Many endemic species of plants
and animals live there, so there are many species
which could be subjects for ecosystem surveys.
At Ogasawara Senior High School, students are
conducting research on black sea snails
(Semisulcospira boninensis), which live in rivers.
I learned that the distance to the tidelands −which
have become scarce now− and the ocean coral from
the school are similar, but the ocean has more
challenging factors to surmount (such as climate,
times of high and low tides and changing seasons)
when including it as a classroom subject. In physical
education classes, there are opportunities to practice
wind surfing and study outrigger canoes. On the
other hand, Hachijojima has no sandy beaches, so
students are unable to enjoy marine sports, including
canoeing.

中村6.jpg
We received a warm welcome at Futami Port.

中村7.png
Minamijima, an uninhibited island with
submerged karst topography

Due to steep topography, the coral reefs of the
Ogasawara Islands are not spread out and instead
grow in a narrow strip along the coastline.
Therefore, these reefs are not amenable to diving
and do not attract diving enthusiasts. However,
compared to the coral bleaching seen in the
Yaeyama Islands, Okinawa, the coral reefs of the
Ogasawara Islands are still quite healthy due to
stable water temperatures and water quality. I heard
that this is largely thanks to the government, which
established sewage treatment facilities on the edge
of Chichijima Island immediately after the
Ogasawara Islands were returned to Japan from the
United States.In ocean education, coral reefs are
typically only mentioned in correlation to the topic of
beachcombing. Therefore, I suggested observation
of the sand grains (the sand there contains coral
gravel and sea urchin spines) and research of the
growth speed or degree of coverage of coral reefs
as achievable themes.

中村8.png
Colonies of branch-shaped coral (Acropora formosa)
under the red lighthouse

中村9.jpg
Scleractinian coral at Miyanohama Beach

2018 marks the 50th anniversary of the return of the
Ogasawara Islands to Japan following U.S.
occupation, and a large ceremony was held on
Chichijima Island. Compared to Hachijojima Island,
the history and culture −such as the Nanyo-Odori
dance− of the Ogasawara Islands is relatively new.
The number of young people moving onto the
islands seems to have been increasing. The
Ogasawara Islands look like a peaceful paradise
now, but the islands were utilized to protect Japan’s
mainland during the Pacific War. On Mt. Yoakeyama
of Chichijima Island, there is a military
communication facility which still remains intact.
The undersea cable, which used to connect to
Saipan before the Pacific War, was cut and still lies
under the sandy Miyanohara Beach alongside
beautiful coral reefs, and remains as proof that the
war actually happened here.

Although the Ogasawara Islands are located within
Japan’s national borders, like Okinawa, they have
gone through a very different post-war history.
Infrastructures on these islands have been well
developed due to funding from Metropolitan Tokyo.
Despite the fact that there are beautiful white sandy
beaches here, these remote islands do have issues.
There have been ongoing arguments over airfield
construction. As there is a high possibility of the
islands being greatly affected by typhoons and
climate change, I predict that exchanges between
senior high school students living on remote islands
like this one will strengthen connections among the
islands and be very useful in the future.


Nobuko Nakamura

Research Fellow,
Policy Research Department

【Reference Material】
*Akira, Goto. Technological Interaction of Traditional
Boat Building in the Circum-Pacific Area−Outrigger
Fishing Boats on the Bonin Islands and the Hachijo-
jima Island, Annual Report−International Center for
Folk Culture Studies, Kanagawa University 2010,
1: 75-82

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Ocean Jigsaw Puzzle Piece Series - Is the Indian Ocean a Sea of Reincarnation? [2019年03月06日(Wed)]

This blog post was originally uploaded in
Japanese to OPRI's blog
on May 9, 2018.

---

Of the sea lanes, or main arteries which support
today’s global economy, the one that goes through
the Indian Ocean is becoming center stage for global
politics, economics, and security. One of the pillars of
Japanese diplomacy, the “Free and Open Indo-Pacific
Vision,” is a strategy to connect the Indian Ocean
and the Asia-Pacific regions. What kind of image
should Japan and the global society create for the
Indian Ocean moving forward? Before discussing
this, it is necessary to look back over the history of
the relationship between human beings and the
Indian Ocean.

Early in history, merchants from Nanyue, Dravida
and Arabia began freely traveling through the Indian
Ocean and essentially created a cosmopolitan world
there. After the great expeditions to the Southern
Sea, led by Zheng He as a state project of China’s
Ming Dynasty, a sea lane was created. When land
travel between East and the West was blocked due
to the rise of the Ottoman Turks, the Age of
Navigation began with Spain and Portugal as the
leading pioneers.

When the navy of the Ottoman Turks was destroyed
at the Battle of Lepanto, naval ships from the
Christian world began traveling out of the
Mediterranean Sea to accompany merchant fleets.
The sea powers which succeeded in securing the
sea lane and a beachhead toward overseas markets
began to reign supreme over the Indian Ocean.
After that, the Indian Ocean became a crucial
location which continued to serve as a sea lane for
the sea powers −Portugal, Holland and Britain− to
utilize in order to obtain colonies and markets in
South Asia and East Asia. After World War I began,
the Indian Ocean became a central location where
great nations contended with each other for
military superiority. This lasted until the post-World
War II period and the Cold War era following that.

Looked at from a classic geopolitical perspective, the
Indian Ocean was a “cosmopolitan ocean,” possibly
from prehistoric times. Then it became an “ocean
targeted by land-power nations” (such as the Ming
Dynasty) in the beginning of the 15th Century.
Half a century later came the Age of Navigation, and
it changed to an “ocean targeted by sea powers.”
The Indian Ocean continued its paradigm shifts to
become an “ocean of military conflict” during the era
of World War I, World War II, and the Cold War.

Since the Cold War and the globalization of economic
activities, the Indian Ocean has become the center
stage of economic activities by various countries and
non-state actors − from both inside and outside the
Indian Ocean. However, a system or regime to
regulate the utilization of the Indian Ocean has not
necessarily been established. In regard to security,
“power vacuums” exist in the vast Indian Ocean.
Therefore, it is more appropriate to call the Indian
Ocean “chaotic” than “free,” “fluid” than “vibrant.”

Currently, China is actively advancing toward the
Indian Ocean based on its Belt and Road Initiative
(BRI), causing concern that the security environment
may become unstable with this shift of power.
Although the aim of the BRI is to spur global
economic activities, instead of expanding China’s
military influence in the world, if a new country joins
an economic arena in order to obtain economic
benefits where certain countries have already been
receiving benefits, this may create conflict. Japan
has established a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific”
strategy, and the United States of America, India
and Australia have expressed interest in cooperating
with this strategy.

From my perspective, the Indian Ocean currently
seems to be a place where a “cosmopolitan ocean,”
an “ocean targeted by land-powers,” and an “ocean
targeted by sea powers” are all mixed into one.
Looking back over the lessons of history, should we
expect an “ocean of military conflict” to come next?

Although protectionist sentiment can be seen in
some countries, there is no sign of a decrease in the
globalization of economic activities or the creation of
a global society without borders. The same thing is
occurring in ocean space. All oceans −the Pacific,
the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean− are closely
linked, and it is time to consider the space they
create one unified body called a global ocean.
If the Arctic sea ice continues to melt and year-round
navigation becomes a reality, a route which goes
around the Eurasian Continent would be open.
Non-stop routes which cover all oceans on earth
would no longer be just a dream.

KA1.jpg
Evaluations of the relationship of the Indian Ocean
and other oceans of the world by historic individuals
(Famous quotes)

This means that what is happening in the Indian
Ocean affects all other oceans on earth. If the
Indian Ocean becomes an “ocean of military
conflict,” the safety of all oceans on earth could be
jeopardized. Therefore, the Indian Ocean should
not just be considered an expanse of water limited
to that region. Human society should create a
paradigm of wide utilization of the Indian Ocean as
the axis for all of the oceans in the world. I think
that this might serve as an approach to prevent
the Indian Ocean once again becoming an “ocean
of military conflict.”

However, if you ask me whether or not I have
specific countermeasures, I cannot give you an
answer yet. However, an international effort to
establish universal rules to control usage of the
Indian Ocean is necessary. Therefore, Japan’s
“Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision” should not
aim to compete with the BRI. The strategy
should show the value of human rights/
democracy/free trade, the attractiveness of
developing a high-quality infrastructure and
reliable investments, as well as the importance
of compliance with the International Law of the
Sea.

The Ocean Policy Research Institute of the
Sasakawa Peace Foundation (OPRI-SPF)

conducts a wide variety of research, taking the
view of the world’s oceans, including the Indian
Ocean, as a unified body of water. We think it is
important to look back through history. History
does not flow but accumulates. People say that
history repeats itself, but history does not repeat
itself. History is always present and affects what
we do next. I see this with the China-Japan and
Korea-Japan relationships.

What kind of picture should we or can we create
for the future of the Indian Ocean? To come up
with an answer, it is crucial to analyze in detail
the paradigm shifts that have already occurred
in the area.

Kazumine Akimoto
Senior Research Fellow

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"Ocean Newsletter Selected Papers No.23" Now Available [2019年02月21日(Thu)]

The Ocean Policy Research Institute of the
Sasakawa Peace Foundation (OPRI-SPF)

publishes a Japanese-language newsletter called
the "Ocean Newsletter" twice a month.
The "Ocean Newsletter" seeks to provide people of
diverse viewpoints and backgrounds with a forum
for discussion and to contribute to the formulation
of maritime policies conducive to coexistence
between mankind and the ocean.

The "Ocean Newsletter Selected Papers" contains
English-language versions of papers from the
Japanese Newsletter edition. It is our sincere hope
that these Selected Papers will provide useful
insights on policy debate in Japan and help to foster
global policy dialogue on various ocean issues.

Please click here to access "Ocean Newsletter
Selected Papers No.23," the latest in the series,
containing works published between No.411
(September 20, 2017) and No.430 (July 5, 2018)
in the Japanese edition.

No.23.PNG


Selected Papers.PNG
A preview of "Ocean Newsletter
Selected Papers No.23"


-Contents-

Discussion: Innovation to Overcome the Dangers
Facing Our Oceans
Yohei Sasakawa
Chairman, The Nippon Foundation
Atsushi Sunami
President, Ocean Policy Research Institute of the
Sasakawa Peace Foundation (OPRI-SPF) /
Executive Director, The Sasakawa Peace Foundation

CCS Demonstration Project Offshore Tomakomai
Yutaka Tanaka
General Manager, Technology and Planning
Department, Japan CCS Co., Ltd.

The Fire of Rice Sheaves and its Connection to World
Tsunami Awareness Day
Koichi Sakiyama
Director, Inamura-no-Hi no Yakata

Ama Divers are Incredible!
Yoshikata Ishihara
Director, Toba Sea-Folk Museum

Hosting of the Coast Guard Global Summit (CGGS)
−Towards the Maintenance of International Maritime
Order−
Kentaro Furuya
Associate Professor (joint appointment),
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
(GRIPS) / Japan Coast Guard Academy

What Recovery Means for Us −Thoughts Following
Production of the Film “Fukushima Fishermen”−
Toru Yamada
Film Director

The United Nations University's “Noto Satoumi
Movement” −Connecting Japan's Coastal
Management to Global Ocean Problems−
Evonne Yiu
Research Associate, United Nations University
Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability
(UNU-IAS)

The Roadmap to Oceans and Climate Action
Initiative
Biliana Cicin-Sain
President, Global Ocean Forum (GOF) /
Professor, University of Delaware
Meredith Kurz
Formerly Assistant to the President of GOF

Drug Resistant Bacteria in our Oceans: Where did
they come from and where will they go?
Satoru Suzuki
Professor, Center for Marine Environmental Studies,
Ehime University

Guideline for Consensus Building Regarding Use of
the Oceans: Towards the Creation of “Marine
Spatial Planning”
Yutaka Michida
Professor, Atmosphere and Ocean Research
Institute,The University of Tokyo
Tatsuro Suwa
Project Associate Professor, Graduate School of
Public Policy, The University of Tokyo

Putting “Dreams and Spirit” into Shrimp Crackers
Toshio Mitsuda
President and Representative Director,
Keishindo Corporation

Posted by OPRI at 10:00 | この記事のURL | コメント(0)
Ocean Jigsaw Puzzle Piece Series: International Developments in Ocean Policy – From Charlevoix to Biarritz [2019年01月23日(Wed)]

This blog post was originally uploaded in
Japanese to OPRI's blog
on July 11, 2018.

---

Right after the Japan Meteorological Agency
announced the end of the rainy season, sudden rain
storms hit the western part of Japan in July 2018.
The extent of the damage is becoming clear.
Ground transport was cut off and the disruption
prevented relief supplies and volunteers from
reaching the people in need of assistance.
I express my sympathy for the people affected by
this disaster and hope for expeditious recovery and
restoration of the affected areas.

Natural disasters like this are not only happening in
Japan, but have become world-wide phenomena
in recent years. At the G7 summit held last month
(June 2018) in Charlevoix, Quebec, Canada, G7
leaders adopted the Summit Communiqué and seven
other documents (declarations and annexes).
The “Charlevoix Blueprint for Healthy Oceans, Seas
and Resilient Coastal Communities” was one of the
key documents adopted at the Summit.

The Charlevoix Blueprint states that “The health of
our oceans and seas is ‘critical’ to the economic,
social and environmental well-being of the planet.”
The Blueprint describes that oceans and coastal
communities, particularly in small island developing
states (SIDS), face severe threats such as illegal
fishing, marine pollution, marine plastic litter, ocean
warming, ocean acidification, sea-level rise and
extreme climatic events (author’s note: such as
typhoons, storms, and droughts). The Blueprint
states that Arctic and low-lying communities,
including SIDS, are the most vulnerable.
It underlines the importance of planning and
disaster prevention efforts against sea-level rise
and extreme climatic events and encourages the
“development of coastal management strategies”
and the “reinforcement of ‘resilient’ and quality
infrastructure in coastal communities.”
(The word ‘resilient’ is interpreted as ‘responsive’
or ‘recoverable’ rather than ‘physically solid,’ as
‘infrastructure’ here can also include disaster
prevention through the use of natural capital and
the better environmental management.)

G7 leaders specifically listed in the Blueprint the
development and deployment of eco-friendly and
resilient energy systems, including those from
renewable sources. They have also referred to
wetlands, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and
coral reefs as natural capital, and expressed their
support to strengthen their conservation and
rehabilitation as they are important infrastructures.
In addition to this, they also decided to strengthen
the capacity to implement policies necessary for
early warnings of extreme climatic events and
geophysical disasters (author’s note: landslides,
volcano eruptions and earthquakes).

It was widely reported that Japan, along with the
United States, did not sign the “Ocean Plastic
Charter” that was an annex to the Blueprint.
Little was reported about the actual content of the
Blueprint itself. It is important to recall that the
Blueprint demonstrates important policy directions
for energy systems, natural capital, financing, earth
observation, integrated coastal zone management,
sharing of scientific knowledge and data,
countermeasures for illegal fishing and overfishing,
protection and management of vulnerable ocean
areas and marine resources, and countermeasures
for marine plastic and debris. Japan and other
countries of the world need to assess and strive to
improve the situation.

The 2018 G7 Summit led by Canadian Prime
Minister Justin Trudeau has not yet been completed.
The Canadian government announced that it plans
to hold a meeting for G7 Environment, Energy and
Ocean Ministers from 19 – 21 September 2018 in
Halifax, Canada. The meeting will be co-chaired by
three cabinet members of the Canadian
government: H.E. Ms. Catherine McKenna, Minister
of Environment and Climate Change, H.E. Mr.
Dominic LeBlanc, Minister of Fisheries, Oceans
and the Canadian Coast Guard, and H.E. Mr. Jim
Carr, Minister of Natural Resources. It has been
reported that the participants will discuss climate
change, marine conservation, production,
transport and energy.

It is worth mentioning that at the press conference
following the Charlevoix Summit, French President
Emmanuel Macron spoke together with Prime
Minister Trudeau and announced that the next G7
Summit would be held in Biarritz, one of the most
renowned resorts in France facing the Northern
Atlantic, and that the leaders would include in the
agenda the issues of climate change and the oceans,
regarding them as important issues that the
international community must tackle.

France manages the second largest sea area after
the United States and is approximately two times
larger than that of Japan, which has the sixth
largest sea area in the world. At the 21st Conference
of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2015,
the female French Minister of the Environment,
Energy and the Ocean played a major role.
French Polynesia, which includes Tahiti and New
Caledonia in the Pacific, shares a large portion of
France’s sea areas. In New Caledonia, a referendum
will be held in November 2018 to decide whether it
should remain as a French territory or become
independent. At this stage, it is projected that it
would be decided to remain as a French territory
although it might be a narrow margin.

There are ambivalent views on this matter.
Some argue that there are no longer vested
interests in the Pacific islands after the completion
of nuclear testing. Others argue that there are still
important vested interests in the Pacific islands as
New Caledonia and Tahiti are important tourist
destinations and there are mineral resources on
the seabed. For these reasons, it is presumed that
the French government will continue to maintain
and manage its overseas territories as an
important part of the country’s sovereignty.

photo 5.png
Tamatoa Bambridge, Research Director at the French
Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique,
explains the purpose of the meeting.

photo 1.jpg
Gérald Parker, Chief of Teahupo’o Village, Tahiti,
shares information about marine protected areas,
which are considered to be tapu (sacred). The
photograph was taken inside Teahupo’o’s Village Hall.

I participated in the “International Workshop on
Large Marine Protected Areas in the Pacific” held at
the University of French Polynesia in May 2018.
I made a presentation on marine management in
the Pacific region, participated in discussions, and
also joined a field visit to study marine protected
areas of Tahiti, Mo’orea, and Raiatea, to observe
aquaculture, coastal zone management methods
and other research and human resource
development projects.

During the Workshop, the participants discussed the
conservation of large transboundary sea areas,
sustainable management of fishery resources,
conservation of marine ecosystems,
countermeasures for illegal, unreported and
unregulated (IUU) fishing and marine security.
Various views were expressed concerning the
ecological significance of the sea areas of the
Cook Islands, Kiribati and French Polynesia, and
the feasibility of introducing conservation
measures in their surrounding international waters,
as reference was made to the difference in fish catch
between sea areas and in capacity to monitor and
enforce the implementation of conservation
measures.

The sites visited could be characterized as
progressive, integrated, long-term envisaged,
comprehensive, and international. For example, in
Rahui, a small fishing community in Teahupo’o
Village located in the south-eastern part of Tahiti,
the village authority designated the 768 ha of
coastal areas as a marine protected area and
banned fishing in 2014 as reef fish stocks inside
the atoll drastically decreased. The villagers, who
live on agriculture and fishing, monitor illegal
fishing activities, monitoring the process of fish
stock recovery following the establishment of a
small no-fishing zone. The progress of the project
was shared at an international conference held at
the University of Hawaii in April 2018.

In Vaira’o, a community to the west of Rahui,
research on shrimp farming has been conducted at
the Fisheries Technology Center. The purpose of this
research was to increase income for fishermen and
to provide local restaurants with sufficient shrimps
to meet the high demand of food required by the
increasing number of tourists. The center conducted
egg collection, artificial insemination, and larvae
production in a tank and then transferred juvenile to
a pond. The researcher, Thomas Camus, explained
that the challenge was to find a way of applying
residue discharged from the seafood processing
plant to feed the shrimp in order to save the cost of
importing feed from overseas.

photo 2.jpg
Thomas Camus, Researcher at the Vaia Vairao
Aquaculture Centre Technique in Tahiti,
explains about shrimp feed.

photo 6.jpg
A juvenile shrimp farm tank at the Vaia Vairao
Aquaculture Centre Technique in Tahiti

On Raiatea island, I visited Taputapuatea, a site that
was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in
2017. The site is the combination of natural
landscapes, archaeological remains of marae (a ritual
site) from the 16th century, and other cultural
heritage sites dotted from the mountains through
canals to the beach. At Vaihuti Fresh, I visited an
organic farm. The representative at the farm,
Thierry Lison de Loma, who used to be a coral reef
researcher, developed so much frustration seeing
large amounts of red soil sedimentation piling up on
reefs, that he became an organic conservationist
farmer on the hillside. By forming ridges in parallel
with the contour lines and ditches to collect surface
water, he contemplates to arrest top soil run off to
the coast.

On Moorea island, coastal and marine spatial
planning efforts were undertaken and a
“no-fishing” zone was created in the tourist areas
away from the fishing areas.The project was also
undertaken to bury power grids into the ground in
order to improve views and landscapes and to
reduce disaster risks. There is also an oceanographic
research center in Moorea called Gump Station that
operates under the auspices of the University of
California. There is also another research center
called the Centre de Recherches Insulaires et
Observatoire de l’Environnement (Center for Insular
Research and Observatory of the Environment/
CRIOBE) funded by the French Government.
CRIOBE has a guest house for students and
researchers from around the world to stay for the
long term and conduct research while helping and
inspiring each other.

photo 3.jpg
Thierry Lison de Loma, manager of the organic farm
Vaihuti Fresh, gives a brief introduction of his farm.

photo 4.jpg
Research on the acidity tolerance of coral at the
French Centre de Recherches Insulaires et
Observatoire de l’Environnement (Center for Insular
Research and Observatory of the Environment/
CRIOBE) at Moorea.

Staring at climate and ocean, world leaders are
having discussions on how people can live on this
planet. Japan, surrounded by oceans, is expected to
share its long-established expertise and technology
with other countries and take a lead in scaling up
effective policies and measures from long-term and
global perspectives. We will continue our research
works useful to the process where Japanese leaders
and stakeholders will demonstrate leadership at
the Biarritz G7 summit and the Osaka G20 Summit
in 2019.

Masanori Kobayashi
Senior Research Fellow

Posted by OPRI at 15:00 | この記事のURL | コメント(0)
Latest news - OPRI-SPF Joins the "East China Sea and Yellow Sea Studies Think-tank Alliance" [2019年01月09日(Wed)]

Beijing 2.PNG
View of the signing ceremony.
(L) Dr. Atsushi Sunami, Executive Director of SPF and
President of OPRI-SPF
(R) Dr. Zhang Haiwen, Director General of the China
Institute for Marine Affairs (CIMA), State Oceanic
Administration (SOA)

The Ocean Policy Research Institute of the Sasakawa
Peace Foundation (OPRI-SPF) joined the "East China
Sea and Yellow Sea Studies Think-tank Alliance" on
December 21, 2018, following a signing ceremony
in Beijing attended by Dr. Atsushi Sunami, Executive
Director of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation and
President of OPRI-SPF.

The Alliance was established in November 2017 as
a network of ocean and maritime research institutes
in East Asia under the initiative of the China Institute
for Marine Affairs, SOA, based on the idea for
creation of an “East Asia Maritime Cooperation
Platform” raised by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang at
the Ninth East Asia Summit in 2014. It has the
objective of creating a Track-2 level cooperation
platform for ocean and maritime research institutes
in the coastal countries and regions of the East
China Sea and Yellow Sea, promoting communication
among them, and making efforts on various ocean
and maritime related issues in the East China Sea
and Yellow Sea.

For more information, please see the article here.

Posted by OPRI at 15:00 | この記事のURL | コメント(0)
Ocean Newsletter No.442 (Jan. 5, 2019) [2019年01月07日(Mon)]

The Ocean Policy Research Institute (OPRI) is
pleased to announce its latest English publication,
as part of its efforts to disseminate information on
ocean issues both in and outside Japan.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

OPRI publishes a Japanese-language newsletter
called the "Ocean Newsletter" twice a month, with
the aim of providing people of different viewpoints
and backgrounds with a forum for discussion and to
contribute to the formulation of maritime policies
conducive to coexistence between mankind and
the ocean.

Please find the latest English article in our
newsletter below.

WMU GOI.jpg

No. 442 (Jan. 5, 2019)
The World Maritime University−Sasakawa
Global Ocean Institute: A New Institute in a
Unique University


Ronan LONG
(Director, WMU–Sasakawa Global Ocean Institute,
World Maritime University)

It is our sincere hope that the article will provide
useful insights on policy debate in Japan and help to
foster global policy dialogue on various ocean issues.

Posted by OPRI at 15:00 | この記事のURL | コメント(0)
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